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Table 2 Age-adjusted baseline characteristics of 4710 male participants eligible for the analysis of body mass index and incident benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-related outcomes and nocturia in the intervention arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial by baseline body mass index (BMI), 1993–2001

From: Body size throughout the life-course and incident benign prostatic hyperplasia-related outcomes and nocturia

  Baseline body mass index (kg/m2) All participants
   < 25 25–29  ≥ 30
N 1204 2399 1107 4710
Age (mean, years) 61.1 60.8 60.2 60.7
Race/ethnicity (%)   
White 88.3 92.2 92.9 91.3
Black 2.0 1.3 3.0 1.9
Asian/Pacific Islander 8.8 5.2 2.2 5.4
Other 0.9 1.3 1.9 1.4
Education (%)   
Less than high school degree 3.8 5.4 6.4 5.2
High school graduate 12.3 18.4 21.6 17.6
Some college/post high school training 28.3 32.5 36.2 32.3
College degree or higher 55.6 43.8 35.9 44.9
Marital status (%)   
Married or living as married 83.9 86.7 87.6 86.2
Not currently married 16.1 13.3 12.4 13.8
Current physical activity (h/week, %)   
None 11.0 12.4 18.3 13.4
One 24.1 29.5 34.4 29.2
Two to three 30.9 33.0 29.7 31.7
Four or more 34.1 25.1 17.7 25.7
Smoking history (%)   
Never smoker 34.4 29.1 24.1 29.3
Current cigarette smoker 13.8 11.0 6.9 10.7
Former cigarette smoker 45.3 51.5 60.3 52.0
Cigar or pipe smoker only 6.5 8.3 8.8 8.0
Current mean intakes of     
Energy (kcal/day) 2255.0 2320.4 2445.4 2333.0
Carbohydrates (g/day) 292.3 292.8 300.0 294.3
Fat (g/day) 74.4 79.7 87.0 80.0
Poly-unsaturated fatty acid (g/day) 15.2 15.9 17.0 16.0
Protein (g/day) 85.7 90.7 97.9 91.1
Alcohol (g/day) 18.0 17.1 17.1 17.3
Fruit (servings/day) 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.3
Vegetables (servings/day) 3.8 3.7 3.8 3.8
Red meat (g/day) 87.5 102.3 124.3 103.7
Dietary     
Alpha-carotene (mcg/day) 1283.8 1280.5 1316.3 1289.8
Beta-carotene equivalents (mcg/day) 5632.7 5566.4 5611.4 5593.9
Lycopene (mcg/day) 11,205.0 11,839.0 12,667.0 11,716.3
Total (from the diet and supplements)     
Beta-carotene (mcg/day) 5463.9 5282.4 5276.2 5327.3
Selenium (mcg/day) 117.6 122.1 130.3 122.9
Vitamin A (IU/day) 15,230.0 14,949.0 14,987.0 15,030.0
Vitamin C (mg/day) 441.8 418.8 377.6 415.0
Vitamin E (IU/day) 164.7 153.3 152.5 156.0
Zinc (mg/day) 20.3 20.3 21.0 20.5
Multivitamin use (%) 48.8 42.7 39.5 43.5
Medical history (%)     
Hypertension 15.8 26.9 38.1 26.7
Coronary heart disease 6.8 9.4 11.5 9.2
Stroke 1.0 1.0 1.6 1.2
Diabetes 3.7 4.7 8.7 5.4
Arthritis 19.1 23.5 30.8 24.1
Emphysema 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.8
Bronchitis 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0
Gall bladder stone or inflammation 3.4 5.6 9.0 5.8
Cirrhosis 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2
Diverticulosis 3.7 4.3 4.1 4.1
Hepatitis 3.5 3.5 3.1 3.4
Colon polyps and polyp syndromes 6.8 6.6 8.1 7.0
Clinical prostatitis 3.7 3.0 3.3 3.2
  1. g/day: grams per day; h/week: hour per week; IU/day: international unit per day; kcal/day: kilocalories per day; kg/m2: kilograms per meter2; mcg/day: micrograms per day; mg/day: milligrams per day