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Table 2 Factors Associated with urinary outcome trajectories assessed by the expanded prostate cancer index composite (EPIC)-50 among men in the prostatectomy, incontinence and erectile dysfunction (PIE) study

From: One-year urinary and sexual outcome trajectories among prostate cancer patients treated by radical prostatectomy: a prospective study

  All participants n (%) BPH-related factors ED-related factors
Prostate size IPSS score BPH medication use at baseline BPH composite measure ED medication use at baseline ED medication or device use at follow-up
 < 40 g  ≥ 40 g  < 8  ≥ 8 No Yes No BPH Any BPH No Yes No Yes
Urinary function (continence) 5 weeks post-surgery (n = 377)
Impaired              
N 346 (91.8)             
OR 95% CI              
Maintained              
N 28 (7.4)             
OR 95% CI              
Improved              
N 3 (0.8)             
OR 95% CI              
Urinary function (continence) 12 months post-surgery (n = 347)
Impaired              
N 145 (41.8) 57 51 53 46 129 16 63 82 137 8 46 94
OR 95% CI   Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Maintained              
N 168 (48.4) 52 71 58 51 148 20 64 104 163 5 59 102
OR 95% CI   1.5 (0.9 to 2.6) 1.0 (0.6 to 1.7) 1.1 (0.5 to 2.2) 1.2 (0.8 to 2.0) 0.5 (0.2 to 1.6) 0.8 (0.5 to 1.4)
Improved              
N 34 (9.8) 11 17 6 11 28 6 11 23 31 3 13 18
OR 95% CI   1.7 (0.6 to 4.0) 2.1 (0.7 to 6.2) 1.7 (0.6 to 4.8) 1.6 (0.7 to 3.5) 1.7 (0.4 to 6.6) 0.7 (0.3 to 1.5)
Incontinence-related bother 5 weeks post-surgery (n = 379)
Impaired              
N 266 (70.3)             
OR 95% CI              
Maintained              
N 110 (29.0)             
OR 95% CI              
Improved              
N 3 (0.8)             
OR 95% CI              
Incontinence-related bother 12 months post-surgery (n = 348)
Impaired              
N 53 (15.2) 16 22 25 14 47 6 23 30 50 3 18 33
OR 95% CI   Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Maintained              
N 282 (81.0) 103 109 91 87 251 31 113 169 269 13 97 174
OR 95% CI   0.8 (0.4 to 1.5) 1.7 (0.8 to 3.5) 1 (0.4 to 2.4) 1.1 (0.6 to 2.1) 0.8 (0.2 to 2.9) 1.0 (0.5 to 1.8)
Improved              
N 13 (3.7) 5 7 2 6 9 4 3 10 13 0 6 6
OR 95% CI   1.0 (0.3 to 3.8) 5.4 (1.0 to 30.2) 3.5 (0.8 to 15) 2.6 (0.6 to 10.4) NE 0.5 (0.2 to 1.9)
Voiding dysfunction-related bother 5 weeks post-surgery (n = 380)
Impaired              
N 238 (62.6) 93 89 91 54 212 26 109 129 226 12 126 99
OR 95% CI   Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Maintained              
N 58 (15.3) 21 18 23 15 54 4 27 31 55 3 22 33
OR 95% CI   0.9 (0.4 to 1.8) 1.1 (0.5 to 2.3) 0.6 (0.2 to 1.8) 1.0 (0.5 to 1.7) 1.0 (0.3 to 3.8) 1.9 (1.0 to 3.5)
Improved              
N 84 (22.1) 20 41 14 46 63 21 15 69 80 4 38 40
OR 95% CI   2.1 (1.2 to 3.9) 5.5 (2.8 to 11.0) 2.7 (1.4 to 5.2) 3.9 (2.1 to 7.2) 0.9 (0.3 to 3.0) 1.3 (0.8 to 2.2)
Voiding dysfunction-related bother 12 months post-surgery (n = 348)
Impaired              
N 91 (26.1) 38 32 36 20 84 7 49 42 87 4 32 57
OR 95% CI   Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Maintained              
N 80 (23.0) 37 26 35 13 75 5 44 36 76 4 22 53
OR 95% CI   0.8 (0.4 to 1.7) 0.7 (0.3 to 1.5) 0.8 (0.2 to 2.6) 1.0 (0.5 to 1.7) 1.1 (0.3 to 4.7) 1.4 (0.7 to 2.6)
Improved              
N 177 (50.9) 49 80 47 74 148 29 46 131 169 8 67 103
OR 95% CI   1.9 (1.1 to 3.5) 2.8 (1.5 to 5.5) 2.4 (1.0 to 5.6) 3.3 (2.0 to 5.7) 1.0 (0.3 to 3.5) 0.9 (0.5 to 1.5)
  1. BPH benign prostatic hyperplasia, CI confidence interval, ED erectile dysfunction, IPSS International Prostate Symptom Score, OR odds ratio, NE not estimable
  2. EPIC-50 measured urinary and sexual outcome trajectories were defined as impaired (negative change greater than the upper bound of minimally important difference), maintained, and improved (positive change greater than the upper bound of minimally important difference). Urinary function, incontinence-related bother: impaired (change < 9); maintained (− 9 ≤ change ≤ 9); improved (change ≥ 9). Voiding dysfunction-related bother: impaired (change < 7); maintained (− 7 ≤ change ≤ 7); improved (change ≥ 7)