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Table 2 Characteristics at institutions that perform circumcisions (N = 317)

From: Neonatal circumcision availability in the United States: a physician survey

Characteristics N (%)
Standard protocol, checklist, or similar that is used during the birth encounter that includes offering or performing circumcision  
 Yes 139 (43.4%)
 No 133 (41.6%)
 Don’t know/unsure 44 (13.8%)
 No response 1 (0.3%)
Who must initiate conversations about circumcision?  
 Either hospital team or family 250 (78.9%)
 Family 20 (6.3%)
 Hospital team 10 (3.2%)
 Don’t know/uncertain 6 (1.9%)
 Other 31 (9.8%)
Entity that developed this protocol, checklist, or similar  
 Institution 59 (18.4%)
 Department 34 (10.6%)
 Group practice 21 (6.6%)
 Self 6 (1.9%)
 Government 1 (0.3%)
 Don’t know/unsure 106 (33.1%)
 Othera 6 (1.9%)
 No response 84 (26.3%)
Exclusion criteria at birth encounter for neonatal circumcision  
 Penile anatomic abnormality (e.g., hypospadias, curvature, buried penis) 312 (97.5%)
 Family history of bleeding disorder 233 (72.8%)
 Prematurity 47 (14.7%)
 Weight limit 38 (11.9%)
 Older age at discharge 35 (10.9%)
 Neonatal intensive care unit 25 (7.8%)
 Other exclusionb 48 (15.0%)
Days that neonatal circumcision is available  
 Monday 262 (82.6%)
 Tuesday 261 (82.3%)
 Wednesday 262 (82.6%)
 Thursday 261 (82.3%)
 Friday 261 (82.3%)
 Saturday 246 (77.6%)
 Sunday 242 (76.3%)
Don’t know/unsure 55 (17.4%)
 Times neonatal circumcision is available during birth encounter  
 Regular business hours (approximately 08:00 AM–05:00 PM) 165 (51.6%)
 24 h per day 67 (20.9%)
 Don’t know/unsure 56 (17.5%)
 Otherc 25 (7.8%)
No response 4 (1.3%)
Specialty that performs neonatal circumcisions at institution  
 Pediatrics 233 (73.5%)
 Obstetrics and gynecology 181 (57.1%)
 Pediatric urology 170 (53.6%)
 Family medicine 98 (30.9%)
 Pediatric surgery 97 (30.6%)
 Adult urology 9 (2.8%)
 Otherd 7 (2.2%)
 Don’t know/unsure 3 (0.9%)
Payment for neonatal circumcision  
 Private insurance 251 (79.4%)
 Medicaid 205 (64.9%)
 Self-pay/cash 177 (56.0%)
 Don’t know/unsure 53 (16.8%)
 Othere 6 (1.9%)
  1. aOther entities: labor and delivery department, individual hospital unit, and pediatric urology
  2. bOther exclusions: refusal of Vitamin K, heart murmurs, hyperbilirubinemia, oxygen monitoring and poor feeding
  3. cOther time ranges: 8 am–9 am, 8 am–10 pm, every day at noon, only in the mornings and based on the availability of providers performing circumcisions,
  4. dOther specialties: general surgery, hospitalist (adult, pediatric), midwife, neonatology, nurse practitioner
  5. eOther payments: covered benefit through plan, hospital writes off the cost or covers if Medicaid, military, and Tricare