Skip to main content

Table 1 Main characteristics of all studies included in this analysis

From: Risk factors for kidney stone disease recurrence: a comprehensive meta-analysis

Study Nation Research type Time data collected Sampling frame Follow-up time Stone types Race Age Sample size Man (%) Recurrence rate (%) Ratio
Song et al. [16] USA Retrospective 2007–2013 SC Median 64 m NA Mixed Mean 57.6 14,854 93.81 57.60 HR
Ito et al. [17] Japan Retrospective 2012–2019 SC Median 31 m Mixed Asian Mean 60.0 664 63.00 20.33 HR
Iremashvili et al. [18] USA Retrospective 2009–2017 SC Mean 4.3 y NA Mixed Mean 54.9 1,970 51.62 20.96 HR
Samson et al. [19] USA Retrospective 2007–2017 SC 3 y NA Mixed Mean 46.0 434,055 57.69 14.50 OR
Prasanchaimontri and Monga [20] USA Retrospective 2002–2012 SC Median 10 y Mixed Mixed NA 1,617 62.71 23.07 OR
Nevo et al. [21] Israel Retrospective 2010–2015 SC Median 38 m Mixed Caucasian Median 53 457 69.20 24.29 HR
Islam et al. [22] USA Retrospective 2008–2018 SC 10 y NA Mixed Mean 57.6 69 44.93 23.19 OR
Ingvarsdottir et al. [23] Iceland Retrospective 1985–2013 SC Median 12 y Mixed Caucasian Median 15 190 41.05 35.79 HR
Castiglione et al. [24] USA Prospective 2009 SC 5 y NA Mixed Mean 48.2 375 54.80 21.07 OR
Vaughan et al. [25] USA Retrospective 1984–2012 SC NA NA Mixed Mean 43.9 3,364 60.79 26.22 HR
Kang et al. [26] Korea Retrospective 1994–2017 SC 15 years NA Asian Mean 49.1 680 60.15 41.18 HR
Iremashvili et al. [27] USA Retrospective 2009–2016 SC Median 4.8 y NA Mixed Mean 53.6 498 52.21 17.67 HR
Iremashvili et al. [28] USA Retrospective 2009–2017 SC Mean 4.1 y NA Mixed Mean 54.8 1,496 52.07 24.53 HR
Ruysscher et al. [29] Belgium Retrospective 1998–2016 SC NA NA Caucasian Median 3.9 97 73.20 34.02 OR
Costa et al. [30] USA Prospective 2009–2013 SC 5 y Mixed Mixed Mean 49.6 175 53.14 66.86 OR
Yamashita et al. [31] Japan Retrospective 2011–2015 SC NA NA Asian Median 59 300 69.33 49.33 OR
Wang et al. [32] China Retrospective 2015 SC NA COS Asian mean 50.6 72 75.00 50.00 OR
Ozgor et al. [33] Turkey Retrospective 2011–2013 SC Mean 33.3 m Mixed Caucasian Mean 47.33 202 53.11 22.28 OR
Ferraro et al. [34] Italy Prospective 1993–1994 SC 5 y COS Caucasian Mean 45.3 103 NA 33.98 HR
Tasian et al. [6] USA Retrospective 2008–2014 SC 3 y Mixed Caucasian Median 14.8 285 45.61 23.86 HR
Kang et al. [35] Korea Retrospective 1994–2015 SC NA Mixed Asian Mean 44.9 624 63.58 37.66 HR
Shih et al. [36] China Retrospective 2000–2002 SC Mean 8.9 y NA Asian Mean 27.48 1,474 0.00 16.62 HR
Guerra et al. [37] Italian Retrospective 1986–2013 SC NA CS Caucasian NA 2,080 61.01 6.11 OR
El-Assmy et al. [38] Egypt Retrospective 1998–2011 SC 10 y Mixed Caucasian Mean 41.3 784 73.09 25.26 HR
Bos et al. [39] Canada Prospective 2009–2010 SC 5 y NA Caucasian Mean 54.5 110 63.64 25.45 HR
Liu et al. [40] China Retrospective 1999–2010 SC NA NA Asian Mean 52.8 1,259 85.94 13.26 HR
Rule et al. [41] USA Retrospective 1984–2003 SC NA Mixed Mixed Mean 41.7 2,239 62.48 31.58 HR
Kang et al. [42] Korea Retrospective 1994–2010 SC Median 35 m Mixed Asian NA 240 NA 23.33 HR
Kang et al. [43] Korea Retrospective 2007–2011 SC NA Mixed Asian Mean 60.4 342 48.25 16.96 HR
Kruck et al. [44] Germany Retrospective 2001–2007 SC NA Mixed Caucasian Mean 51.5 482 66.00 NA OR
Kohjimoto et al. [45] Japan Retrospective 2005 MC 7 y Mixed Asian Mean 52.5 11,555 73.86 57.14 OR
Sorensen et al. [46] USA Retrospective 2001–2010 SC NA NA Caucasian Mean 55 40 32.50 22.50 OR
Pieras et al. [47] Spain Retrospective 2003–2007 SC Mean 60 m Mixed Caucasian Mean 44 248 69.76 48.79 HR
Ha et al. [48] Korea Retrospective 1994–2008 SC NA CS Asian NA 247 NA 39.68 HR
DeFoor et al. [49] USA Retrospective 1999–2006 SC NA Mixed Mixed Mean 12.7 139 52.52 36.69 OR
Kim et al. [50] Korea Retrospective 1994–2007 SC Median 49 m CS Asian mean 44.3 266 65.20 41.73 HR
Lee et al. [51] Korea Retrospective 1996–2006 SC Median 54 m Mixed Asian Mean 42.9 163 66.76 36.20 HR
Krambeck et al. [52] USA Retrospective 1983–1984 SC  > 5 y Mixed Mixed NA 375 64.80 49.60 OR
Unal et al. [53] Turkey Retrospective NA SC NA NA Caucasian Mean 35 173 50.87 28.32 HR
Daudon et al. [54] France Retrospective 1984–2000 SC 3 y COS Caucasian Mean 30.4 181 70.17 39.78 HR
Abe et al. [55] Japan Retrospective 1987–2000 SC 5 y Mixed Asian Mean 45.7 11,39 72.10 28.62 OR
Parks et al. [56] USA Prospective 1970–2003 SC 30 y ICN Mixed Mean 33.0 1,201 70.86 NA HR
Mardis et al. [57] USA Prospective 1995–1996 SC 7 y Mixed Mixed NA 203 70.44 29.06 HR
Afshar et al. [58] Canada Retrospective 1990–2002 SC Mean 46 m Mixed Caucasian Mean 7 83 46.99 31.33 OR
Siener et al. [59] Germany Prospective NA SC 2 y COS Caucasian Mean 51.7 134 67.16 42.54 OR
Chen et al. [60] USA Retrospective 1973–1996 SC 5 y NA Mixed Mean 37 62 87.10 30.65 RR
Borghi et al. [61] Italy Prospective 1993–1994 SC 5 y COS Caucasian Mean 45.1 120 100.00 43.33 RR
Jendle-Bengten et al. [62] Sweden Retrospective NA SC Mean 5.6 y COS Caucasian Mean 50 52 73.08 51.92 HR
Trinchieri et al. [63] Italy Prospective 1980–1990 SC Mean 19.3 y Mixed Caucasian Mean 44.3 195 50.26 26.67 HR
Ettinger et al. [64] USA Prospective NA SC 3 y COS Mixed Mean 48.0 64 78.13 39.06 RR
Hiatt et al. [65] USA Prospective 1984–1985 MC 4.5 y COS Mixed Mean 43.0 99 78.79 14.14 HR
Gambaro et al. [66] Italy Prospective 1984–1986 SC 9 y NA Caucasian Median 34 190 65.79 57.89 OR
Streem [67] USA Prospective 1983 SC Mean 41.7 m MAPS Mixed Mean 53.2 44 20.45 27.27 OR
  1. SC, single center; MC, multi-center; NA, not available; OR, odds risk; RR, relative risk; HR, hazard risk; CS, calcium stone; COS, calcium oxalate stone; MAPS, magnesium-ammonium calcium phosphate stone; y, year; m, month