A case of squamous cell carcinoma arising from a suprapubic cystostomy tract
© Ito et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 20 May 2011
Accepted: 3 October 2011
Published: 3 October 2011
Patients with spinal cord injury and a chronic indwelling urinary catheter are known to have an increased risk of bladder malignancy. However, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the epidermis around a suprapubic cystostomy is relatively rare. Here, we report a case of lower abdominal SCC arising from the suprapubic cystostomy tract.
A 58-year-old man with a complete spinal cord injury was referred to our hospital with a chief complaint of an abdominal mass. Abdominal enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a 7-cm mass surrounding the suprapubic cystostomy and bilateral inguinal and para-aortic lymph nodes metastasis. Histopathological examination of percutaneous biopsy specimens was performed. The diagnosis was stage IV (cT4N1M1) epidermal SCC, which was treated with palliative external radiation therapy.
The SCC in this case was thought to arise from mechanical stimulus of the suprapubic cystostomy. Physicians and patients should pay careful attention to any signs of neoplasms with long-term indwelling catheters, such as skin changes around the suprapubic cystostomy site. This case presentation is only the fourth report of SCC arising from the suprapubic cystostomy tract in the literature. In cases of unresectable tumors and contraindications to chemotherapy, palliative radiotherapy may lead to disease remission and symptom relief.
Patients with spinal cord injury and a chronic indwelling urinary catheter are known to have an increased risk of bladder malignancy. This condition has been attributed to chronic inflammation and mechanical stimuli from the catheter. Chronic bladder irritation or infection is often associated with squamous metaplasia . Kaufman et al.  reported that squamous metaplasia is more likely in patients with indwelling catheters placed for more than 10 years than in those with indwelling catheters for less than 10 years (80% vs 42%). In particular, the clinical significance of keratinizing squamous metaplasia in the setting of indwelling urinary catheters remains unclear, but some studies have linked this entity to the development of invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) .
This can be considered in light of the fact that epidermal SCC is the second most common type of skin cancer and most cases are caused by exposure to the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays or to mechanical stimuli. We report here a case of SCC that developed in the skin around a suprapubic cystostomy.
A 58-year-old man with a complete spinal cord injury was referred to our hospital in August 2010 with a chief complaint of a severely inflamed abdominal mass. The spinal cord injury had resulted in the absence of sensation below the waist and chronic neurogenic bladder. The patient also had a history of an intracranial hemorrhage, from 4 years prior to his presentation, which had severely impaired some higher cognitive functions.
For bladder management, the patient had undergone a percutaneous cystostomy with placement of an indwelling catheter, about 35 years before his presentation. This was done due to the patient's difficulty performing clean, intermittent catheterization on a regular basis. The suprapubic cystostomy catheter was changed once a month at another urology clinic.
The most common bladder tumors in patients with spinal cord injury are SCC (33-46.9%), urothelial carcinoma (31.3-55%), and adenocarcinoma (9.4-10%) [4–6]. In the literature SCC is more common in patients with indwelling urethral and suprapubic catheters than other forms of bladder management. The incidence of SCC of the bladder in patients with indwelling catheters for more than 10 years is 10% . In a study of 48 patients, the mean time between spinal cord injury and the first bladder malignancy diagnosis was 22.6 years .
In the present case, we were unable to perform a cystoscopy and assess the bladder mucosa for a possible origin of the tumor. However, we concluded that the SCC developed not from the bladder but from the epidermis around the suprapubic catheter. This conclusion was based on the absence of gross hematuria during follow-up, and a class II urine cytologic evaluation. In addition, front formation  was observed subcutaneously at an obvious border between normal epithelial cells and carcinoma cells (Figure 3 arrow). These findings indicated the origin of SCC was squamous epithelial cells. To our knowledge, the present case is only the fourth report of SCC arising from the suprapubic cystostomy tract in the literatures [7, 10, 11].
We believe that this case of SCC was caused by chronic exposure of the cystostomy site to the mechanical stimuli from the indwelling suprapubic catheter. However, the risk of SCC would not have been eliminated by intermittent catheterization, as demonstrated by reported cases bladder malignancies in patients who perform intermittent catheterization [4, 6, 8].
The only acceptable treatment for deeply invasive but localized SCC arising from a suprapubic cystostomy tract is radical cystectomy and urinary diversion . In this case, the patient's tumor was not localized and had metastasized to the inguinal and para-aortic lymph nodes. In such cases, chemotherapy is considered, but was contraindicated in this patient due to his poor performance status. Thus, the patient underwent external radiation therapy as a palliative treatment. This treatment led to partial disease remission and good palliation of symptoms and it would appear that palliative radiation therapy (a total of 56 Gy) has a role to play in the palliation of metastatic SCC, with good relief of symptoms.
We have presented here a rare case of epidermal SCC in a patient with a suprapubic cystostomy. Physicians and patients should pay close attention to any suspicious signs associated with such long-term cystostomy sites, including skin changes. In this case, other urologists who were changing the catheter once a month had noticed the abdominal mass for 6 months before referring the patient to our clinic admission, but they had considered the cause to be hyperplasia due to benign granulation. The slow growth of the mass may have made early diagnosis difficult. This case clearly demonstrates that chronic indwelling catheters may cause malignancy of not only the bladder but also the epidermis. Thus, early detection and treatment of SCC arising from a suprapubic cystostomy tract are crucial.
This case presentation is only the fourth report of SCC arising from the suprapubic cystostomy tract in the literature. In this case of unresectable metastatic SCC, palliative external radiation therapy led to partial disease remission and good relief of symptoms. It is crucial to pay attention to any suspicious signs, including skin changes around a suprapubic cystostomy, especially in the presence of a long-term indwelling catheter.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review from the Editor-in-Chief of the journal.
- Vaidyanathan S, Mansour P, Soni BM, Singh G, Sett P: The method of bladder drainage in spinal cord injury patients may influence the histological changes in the mucosa of neuropathic bladder - a hypothesis. BMC Urol. 2002, 2: 5-10.1186/1471-2490-2-5.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kaufman JM, Fam B, Jacobs SC, Gabilondo F, Yalla S, Kane JP, Rossier AB: Bladder cancer and squamous metaplasia in spinal cord injury patients. J Urol. 1977, 118: 967-971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ahmad I, Barnetson RJ, Krishna NS: Keratinizing Squamous Metaplasia of the Bladder: A Review. Urol Int. 2008, 81: 247-251. 10.1159/000151398.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- West DA, Cummings JM, Longo WE, Virgo KS, Johnson FE, Parra RO: Role of chronic catheterization in the development of bladder cancer in patients with spinal cord injury. Urology. 1999, 53 (2): 292-7. 10.1016/S0090-4295(98)00517-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gormley EA: Urologic Complications of the Neurogenic Bladder. Urol Clin North Am. 2010, 37 (4): 601-7. 10.1016/j.ucl.2010.07.002.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kalisvaart JF, Katsumi HK, Ronningen LD, Hovey RM: Bladder cancer in spinal cord injury patients. Spinal Cord. 2010, 48 (3): 257-61. 10.1038/sc.2009.118.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stroumbakis N, Choudhury MS, Hernandez-Graulau JM: Squamous cell carcinoma arising from suprapubic cystostomy site without bladder involvement. Urology. 1993, 41 (6): 568-70. 10.1016/0090-4295(93)90107-L.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pannek J: Transitional cell carcinoma in patients with spinal cord injury: a high risk malignancy?. Urology. 2002, 59 (2): 240-4. 10.1016/S0090-4295(01)01495-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sakuragi N: Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of Gynecologic Diseases: Tumor and Kind Tumor. Acta Obstetrica et Gynaecologica Japonica. 2009, 61 (4): 89-101.Google Scholar
- Stokes S, Wheeler JS, Reyes CV: Squamous cell carcinoma arising from a suprapubic cystostomy tract with extension into the bladder. J Urol. 1995, 154 (3): 1132-3. 10.1016/S0022-5347(01)66999-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schaafsma RJ, Delaere KP, Theunissen PH: Squamous cell carcinoma of suprapubic cystostomy tract without bladder involvement. Spinal Cord. 1999, 37 (5): 373-4. 10.1038/sj.sc.3100834.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2490/11/20/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.