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  1. The guidelines of the European Association of Urologists (EAU), of the German Society of Nuclear Medicine (DGN), and the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) recommend sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB)...

    Authors: Ulf Lützen, Carsten Maik Naumann, Jens Dischinger, Marlies Marx, René Baumann, Yi Zhao, Michael Jüptner, Daniar Osmonov, Katrin Bothe, Klaus-Peter Jünemann and Maaz Zuhayra
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:47
  2. Mirabegron is a β3-adrenoreceptor agonist developed for treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). α1-Adrenergic receptor blockers are effective for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in male patients. However, t...

    Authors: Tomohiro Matsuo, Yasuyoshi Miyata, Katsura Kakoki, Miki Yuzuriha, Akihiro Asai, Kojiro Ohba and Hideki Sakai
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:45
  3. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) diagnosed prenatally occurs in 1:150 – 1:1200 pregnancies. Although many studies investigating the molecular changes of this obstructed segment have been performed, th...

    Authors: Sabrina Thalita Reis, Kátia R. M. Leite, Nayara Izabel Viana, Roberto Iglesias Lopes, Caio Martins Moura, Renato F. Ivanovic, Marcos Machado, Francisco Tibor Denes, Amilcar Giron, William Carlos Nahas, Miguel Srougi and Carlo C. Passerotti
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:44
  4. The management of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with venous tumor thrombus (VTT) is challenging. We report our 15 year experience in the management of patients with RCC with VTT utilizing a multidis...

    Authors: Bishoy A. Gayed, Ramy Youssef, Oussama Darwish, Payal Kapur, Aditya Bagrodia, James Brugarolas, Ganesh Raj, J. Michael DiMaio, Arthur Sagalowsky and Vitaly Margulis
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:43
  5. To validate the association between obesity and penile cancer at a population level, we conducted a matched case–control study linking the Iowa Department of Motor Vehicles Drivers’ License Database (DLD) with...

    Authors: Kerri T. Barnes, Bradley D. McDowell, Anna Button, Brian J. Smith, Charles F. Lynch and Amit Gupta
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:42
  6. In Ethiopia, about 9000 fistula cases are estimated to occur every year with an incidence of 2.2/1000 women. This study was aimed to determine obstetric fistula characteristics and surgical repair outcomes amo...

    Authors: Demisew Anemu Sori, Ahadu Workineh Azale and Desta Hiko Gemeda
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:41
  7. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion (Xp11.2 RCC) is a rare subtype of RCC which is firstly described as a distinct entity in 2004 so that clinical characteristics o...

    Authors: Xiangming Cheng, Weidong Gan, Gutian Zhang, Xiaogong Li and Hongqian Guo
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:40
  8. The standard of care in patients with suspected prostate cancer (PCa) is systematic prostate biopsies. This approach leads to unnecessary biopsies in patients without PCa and also to the detection of clinical ...

    Authors: Yngve Nygård, Svein A. Haukaas, Ole J. Halvorsen, Karsten Gravdal, Jannicke Frugård, Lars A. Akslen and Christian Beisland
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:39
  9. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for abscess formation in acute bacterial prostatitis, and to compare treatment outcomes between abscess group and non-abscess group.

    Authors: Dong Sup Lee, Hyun-Sop Choe, Hee Youn Kim, Sun Wook Kim, Sang Rak Bae, Byung Il Yoon and Seung-Ju Lee
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:38
  10. The currently recommended treatment algorithm for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who fail the first-line targeted therapy does not normally include pazopanib as a second-line treatment option. It ...

    Authors: Victor C. Kok and Jung-Tsung Kuo
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:34
  11. The activation of TRPA1 channel is implicated in hyper-reflexic micturition similar to overactive bladder. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of blocking TRPA1 via intrathecal administration of...

    Authors: Zhipeng Chen, Shuqi Du, Chuize Kong, Zhe Zhang and Al-dhabi Mokhtar
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:33
  12. Osteoporosis is a common consequence of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer. Up to 20 % of men on ADT have suffered from fractures within 5 years. The WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX...

    Authors: Takashi Kawahara, Shusei Fusayasu, Koji Izumi, Yumiko Yokomizo, Hiroki Ito, Yusuke Ito, Kayo Kurita, Kazuhiro Furuya, Hisashi Hasumi, Narihiko Hayashi, Yasuhide Myoshi, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Masahiro Yao and Hiroji Uemura
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:32
  13. Flexible cystoscopy (FC) is one of the most frequently performed urological intervention. Cumulative sum analysis (CUSUM) allows objective assessment of a proceduralist’s performance to ensure acceptable outco...

    Authors: Kenneth R. MacKenzie and Jonathan Aning
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:31

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Urology 2016 16:57

  14. Spectrum effects refer to the phenomenon that test performance varies across subgroups of a population. When spectrum effects occur during diagnostic testing for cancer, difficult patient misdiagnoses can occu...

    Authors: Ajay Gopalakrishna, Thomas A. Longo, Joseph J. Fantony, Richmond Owusu, Wen-Chi Foo, Rajesh Dash and Brant A. Inman
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:30
  15. Among the different organs used for NOTES (natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery) technique, the transvaginal approach may be the optimal choice because of a simple and secure closure of colpotomy si...

    Authors: Dechao Wei, Yili Han, Mingchuan Li, Yongxing Wang, Yatong Chen, Yong Luo and Yongguang Jiang
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:29
  16. To assess the anti-adhesive effect of treatment with hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose following laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    Authors: U-Syn Ha, Jun Sung Koh, Kang Jun Cho, Byung Il Yoon, Kyu Won Lee, Sung Hoo Hong and Ji Youl Lee
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:28
  17. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics and predictive value for treatment outcomes. Abiraterone acetate (AA) is a newly approved cytochrome-P450C17 i...

    Authors: Masahiko Nakayama, Hisanori Kobayashi, Tomihiro Takahara, Ryo Oyama, Keiichiro Imanaka and Kazutake Yoshizawa
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:27
  18. We propose to improve the prognostic assessment after radical prostatectomy (RP) by dividing high-risk prostate cancer (hrPCa) (according to the d’Amico classification) into subgroups combining 1, 2 or 3 crite...

    Authors: Jean-Baptiste Beauval, Mathieu Roumiguié, Thomas Filleron, Thibaut Benoit, Alexandre de la Taille, Bernard Malavaud, Laurent Salomon, Michel Soulié and Guillaume Ploussard
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:26
  19. Nonbacterial prostatitis, together with chronic pelvic pain syndrome, accounts for 90–95 % of prostatitis cases. Anti-inflammatory medications are commonly used to reduce storage/inflammatory symptoms that can...

    Authors: Giorgio Bozzini, Marco Provenzano, Nicolò Buffi, Mauro Seveso, Giovanni Lughezzani, Giorgio Guazzoni, Alberto Mandressi and Gianluigi Taverna
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:25
  20. Intestinal metaplasia of the bladder is an uncommon glandular proliferation. We examined a large series of intestinal metaplasia for the clinicopathological features and discuss the significance of this lesion.

    Authors: Zhixiang Xin, Chenhui Zhao, Tao Huang, Zhaohui Zhang, Chenlong Chu, Caifeng Lu, Min Wu and Wenlong Zhou
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:24
  21. Duplex kidney is a common anomaly that is frequently associated with multiple complications. Typical computed tomography urography (CTU) includes four phases (unenhanced, arterial, parenchymal and excretory) a...

    Authors: Honghan Gong, Lei Gao, Xi-Jian Dai, Fuqing Zhou, Ning Zhang, Xianjun Zeng, Jian Jiang and Laichang He
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:21
  22. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether micro-TESE can improve sperm retrieval rate (SRR) compared to conventional single TESE biopsy on the same testicle or to contralateral multiple TESE, by empl...

    Authors: Giorgio Franco, Filomena Scarselli, Valentina Casciani, Cosimo De Nunzio, Donato Dente, Costantino Leonardo, Pier Francesco Greco, Alessia Greco, Maria Giulia Minasi and Ermanno Greco
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:20
  23. Urinary tract infections [UTIs] are very common in people with Spinal Cord Injury [SCI]. UTIs are increasingly difficult and expensive to treat as the organisms that cause them become more antibiotic resistant...

    Authors: Bonsan Bonne Lee, Swee-Ling Toh, Suzanne Ryan, Judy M. Simpson, Kate Clezy, Laetitia Bossa, Scott A. Rice, Obaydullah Marial, Gerard Weber, Jasbeer Kaur, Claire Boswell-Ruys, Stephen Goodall, James Middleton, Mark Tudehope and George Kotsiou
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:18
  24. The objective of this study was to determine the factors responsible for peri-operative blood transfusion in a contemporary series of open prostatectomy for benign prostate hyperplasia and thus offer a guide f...

    Authors: Mathew Y. Kyei, George O. Klufio, James E. Mensah, Samuel Gepi-Attee, Kwabena Ampadu, Bernard Toboh and Edward D. Yeboah
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:17
  25. Human dermal allografts have been used for over a decade for interpositional repair of rectoceles. How do dermal allografts perform with regards to success rate and complications with 8 years’ minimum follow-up?

    Authors: Serge P. Marinkovic, Scott Hughes, Donghua Xie, Lisa M. Gillen and Christina M. Marinkovic
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:16
  26. A possible role for prostate cancer in Lynch syndrome has been debated based on observations of mismatch-repair defective tumors and reports of an increased risk of prostate cancer in mutation carriers. Potent...

    Authors: Mev Dominguez-Valentin, Patrick Joost, Christina Therkildsen, Mats Jonsson, Eva Rambech and Mef Nilbert
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:15
  27. [−2]proPSA and its derivatives have an higher diagnostic accuracy than PSA in predicting prostate cancer (PCa). In alternative to PSA, ultrasensitive PSA (uPSA) and [−2]proPSA could be potentially useful in re...

    Authors: S. De Luca, R. Passera, A. Sottile, C. Fiori, R. M. Scarpa and F. Porpiglia
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:14
  28. While novel drugs have been developed, docetaxel remains one of the standard initial systemic therapies for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. Despite the excellent anti-tumor effect of doce...

    Authors: Shimpei Yamashita, Yasuo Kohjimoto, Takashi Iguchi, Hiroyuki Koike, Hiroki Kusumoto, Akinori Iba, Kazuro Kikkawa, Yoshiki Kodama, Nagahide Matsumura and Isao Hara
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:13
  29. There is much interest in confirming whether the efficacy of abiraterone acetate (AA) demonstrated within the trial setting is reproducible in routine clinical practice. We report the clinical outcome of metas...

    Authors: Darren M. C. Poon, Kuen Chan, S. H. Lee, T. W. Chan, Henry Sze, Eric K. C. Lee, Daisy Lam and Michelle F. T. Chan
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:12
  30. The high false negative rates for initial prostate biopsies refer a large number of the men for repeat biopsies each year. Therefore, biomarkers associated with high risk of the presence of malignancy in histo...

    Authors: Saeid Alinezhad, Riina-Minna Väänänen, Natalia Tong Ochoa, Emily A. Vertosick, Anders Bjartell, Peter J Boström, Pekka Taimen and Kim Pettersson
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:10
  31. Excessive mechanical overload may be involved in bladder wall remodelling. Since the activity of Rho kinase is known to be upregulated in the obstructed bladder, we investigate the roles of the RhoA/Rho kinase...

    Authors: Nobuhiro Kushida, Osamu Yamaguchi, Yohei Kawashima, Hidenori Akaihata, Junya Hata, Kei Ishibashi, Ken Aikawa and Yoshiyuki Kojima
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:9
  32. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy after a second transurethral resection (TUR) in new onset high-grade T1 bladder cancer.

    Authors: Keitaro Iida, Taku Naiki, Noriyasu Kawai, Toshiki Etani, Ryosuke Ando, Yosuke Ikegami, Takehiko Okamura, Hiroki Kubota, Atsushi Okada, Kenjiro Kohri and Takahiro Yasui
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:8
  33. Congenital giant megaureter (CGM) is uncommon in the pediatric population. The major clinical presentations are marked protruberances and abdominal cysts.

    Authors: Mingming Yu, Geng Ma, Zheng Ge, Rugang Lu, Yongji Deng and Yunfei Guo
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:7
  34. Outpatient surgery is critical to improve health care costs. The aim of the study was to prospectively evaluate the results of outpatient treatment of upper tract urinary stones by rigid or flexible ureterosco...

    Authors: Abeni Oitchayomi, Arnaud Doerfler, Sophie Le Gal, Charles Chawhan and Xavier Tillou
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:6
  35. Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is an important step in the process of tumor dissemination and metastasis outside the primary organ, but the relationship between LVI and the prognosis of T1 non-muscle invasive b...

    Authors: Keishiro Fukumoto, Eiji Kikuchi, Shuji Mikami, Akira Miyajima and Mototsugu Oya
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:5
  36. Measurement of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) remains an important tool in prostate cancer (PC) diagnosis. Due to limited availability of laboratory devices in an outpatient setting, compact and easy-to-h...

    Authors: Steffen Rausch, Joerg Hennenlotter, Josef Wiesenreiter, Andrea Hohneder, Julian Heinkele, Christian Schwentner, Arnulf Stenzl and Tilman Todenhöfer
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:4
  37. Current therapies for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have low cure rates or significant side effects. It has been reported that complexes composed of interleukin (IL)-2 and stimulating anti-IL-2 antibody ...

    Authors: Kyu-Hyun Han, Ki Won Kim, Ji-Jing Yan, Jae-Ghi Lee, Eun Mi Lee, Miyeon Han, Eun Jin Cho, Seong Sik Kang, Hye Jin Lim, Tai Yeon Koo, Curie Ahn and Jaeseok Yang
    Citation: BMC Urology 2016 16:2
  38. The American Urological Association (AUA) changed their Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) screening guidelines in 2013 to not recommend testing in men under 55 years of age without significant risk factors (such...

    Authors: Nandu D. Dantanarayana, Tania Hossack, Paul Cozzi, Andrew Brooks, Howard Lau, Warick Delprado and Manish I. Patel
    Citation: BMC Urology 2015 15:124
  39. We investigated the use of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist degarelix in everyday clinical practice using registry data from uro-oncology practices in Germany.

    Authors: Götz Geiges, Thomas Harms, Gerald Rodemer, Ralf Eckert, Frank König, Rolf Eichenauer and Jörg Schroder
    Citation: BMC Urology 2015 15:122
  40. Ureteral stent removal using an extraction string is advantageous because it can obviate an invasive cystoscopy, but there is a paucity of data on how patients feel about it, and how bothersome or beneficial i...

    Authors: Dae Ji Kim, Jeong Hwan Son, Seok Heun Jang, Jae Won Lee, Dae Sung Cho and Chae Hong Lim
    Citation: BMC Urology 2015 15:121

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