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  1. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of uncertain malignant potential, which have in common the co-expression of muscle and melanocytic immunohistochemical markers.

    Authors: Jeremy R Parfitt, Anthony J Bella, Bret M Wehrli and Jonathan I Izawa
    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:20
  2. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) play a major role in the maintenance of extracellular matrix homeostasis and are involved in the process of tumour invasion and metastasis in sever...

    Authors: Andrea Staack, Steffen Badendieck, Dietmar Schnorr, Stefan A Loening and Klaus Jung
    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:19
  3. It is difficult to explain ectopic thyroid beneath the diaphragm because during the development the thyroid descends from the tongue to the anterior of the trachea. A few cases of ectopic lesions have been rep...

    Authors: Jun Hagiuda, Isao Kuroda, Takuji Tsukamoto, Munehisa Ueno, Chizuko Yokota, Takanori Hirose and Nobuhiro Deguchi
    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:18
  4. In spite of excellent cure rates for prostate cancer patients with favorable tumor characteristics, patients with unfavorable characteristics after radical prostatectomy are still at a significantly increased ...

    Authors: Jens Kollermann, Carsten Kempkensteffen, Burkhard Helpap, Mark Schrader, Hans Krause, Markus Muller, Kurt Miller and Martin Schostak
    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:15
  5. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) constitutes a major clinical problem. Minimally invasive therapies for the treatment of symptomatic BPH include Transurethral Needle Ablation (TUNA), but it is unclear what i...

    Authors: Carmen Bouza, Teresa López, Angeles Magro, Lourdes Navalpotro and José María Amate
    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:14
  6. With the increasing interest with botulinum toxin – A (BTX-A) application in the lower urinary tract, we investigated the BTX-A effects on the canine prostate and also in men with bladder outlet obstruction (B...

    Authors: Yao-Chi Chuang, Chieh-Hsien Tu, Chao-Cheng Huang, Hsin-Ju Lin, Po-Hui Chiang, Naoki Yoshimura and Michael B Chancellor
    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:12
  7. The aim of our study was to review the results of microsurgically performed testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and to evaluate its possible long term effects on serum testosterone (T).

    Authors: Karel Everaert, Ilse De Croo, Wim Kerckhaert, Peter Dekuyper, Marc Dhont, Josiane Van der Elst, Petra De Sutter, Frank Comhaire, Ahmed Mahmoud and Nicolaas Lumen
    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:9
  8. Gene expression profiling has recently shown that the mRNA for CD24 is overexpressed in prostate carcinomas (Pca) compared to benign or normal prostate epithelial tissues. Immunohistochemical studies have repo...

    Authors: M Schostak, H Krause, K Miller, M Schrader, S Weikert, F Christoph, C Kempkensteffen and J Kollermann
    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:7
  9. The recent identification of the cold-menthol sensory receptor (TRPM8; CMR1), provides us with an opportunity to advance our understanding of its role in the pathophysiology of bladder dysfunction, and its pot...

    Authors: Gaurav Mukerji, Yiangos Yiangou, Stacey L Corcoran, Inger S Selmer, Graham D Smith, Christopher D Benham, Chas Bountra, Sanjiv K Agarwal and Praveen Anand
    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:6
  10. Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) supplementation restores testicular atrophy associated with advanced liver cirrhosis that is a condition of IGF-I deficiency. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effec...

    Authors: Fernando Diez-Caballero, Inma Castilla-Cortázar, Maria Garcia-Fernandez, Juan Enrique Puche, Matias Diaz-Sanchez, Amelia Diaz Casares, M Aurelia Aliaga-Montilla, Coronación Rodriguez-Borrajo and Salvador Gonzalez-Barón
    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:4
  11. The aim of present study is to investigate the short and long term histopathological alterations caused by submucosal injection of gluteraldehyde cross-linked bovine collagen based on an experimental rat model.

    Authors: Murat Alkan, Beril Talim, Arbay O Ciftci, Mehmet E Şenocak, Melda Cağlar and Nebil Büyükpamukçu
    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:3
  12. Mycotic infections of the bladder produce pain and inflammatory changes. The present study examined the inflammatory and nociceptive effects of the yeast cell wall component, zymosan, when admininstered into t...

    Authors: Alan Randich, Tyler Uzzell, Ronda Cannon and Timothy J Ness
    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:2
  13. Neglected renal stones remain a major cause of morbidity in developing countries. They not only result in functional impairment of affected kidney, but also act as an important predisposing factor for developm...

    Authors: Hemendra Navinchandra Shah, Pritesh Jain and Percy Jal Chibber
    Citation: BMC Urology 2006 6:1
  14. There are no randomised and properly blinded trials directly comparing one PDE-5 inhibitor with another in a normal home setting. Valid indirect comparisons with a common comparator must examine equivalent dos...

    Authors: R Andrew Moore, Sheena Derry and Henry J McQuay
    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:18
  15. Stromal mesenchyme cells play an important role in epithelial differentiation and likely in cancer as well. Induction of epithelial differentiation is organ-specific, and the genes responsible could be identif...

    Authors: Young Ah Goo, David R Goodlett, Laura E Pascal, Kelsey D Worthington, Robert L Vessella, Lawrence D True and Alvin Y Liu
    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:17
  16. One of the rare complications of ileal neobladder after radical cystectomy is pouch-to-intestine fistula. There isn't a classic method to intraoperative diagnosis of small fistula.

    Authors: Abbas Basiri, Emadoddin Mo'oudi, Hamed Akhavizadegan and Naser ShakhsSalim
    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:16
  17. Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), causatively linked to cervical cancer, might also play a role in the development of prostate cancer. Furthermore, the polymorphism at codon 72 (encoding...

    Authors: Gustavo J Leiros, Silvia R Galliano, Mario E Sember, Tomas Kahn, Elisabeth Schwarz and Kumiko Eiguchi
    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:15
  18. Bladder distention is commonly used in diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis (IC). Traditionally performed in the operating room under general or spinal anesthesia (GA), it is expensive and associat...

    Authors: Amy E Rose, Kathryn J Azevedo and Christopher K Payne
    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:14
  19. N-acetyltransferase 2 is phase II metabolizing enzyme that participates in the bioconversion of heterocyclic arylamines into electrophilic nitrenium ions, which are important ultimate carcinogens that are dire...

    Authors: Daya SL Srivastava and Rama D Mittal
    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:12
  20. We examined toe-spreading ability in subjects with chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) to test the hypothesis that subjects with CPPS could have deficiencies in lower extremity functions innervated by sacral s...

    Authors: Ugur Yilmaz, Ivan Rothman, Marcia A Ciol, Claire C Yang and Richard E Berger
    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:11
  21. Simple ligation of the vas with suture material and excision of a small vas segment is believed to be the most common vasectomy occlusion technique performed in low-resource settings. Ligation and excision (LE...

    Authors: Michel Labrecque, John Pile, David Sokal, Ramachandra CM Kaza, Mizanur Rahman, SS Bodh, Jeewan Bhattarai, Ganesh D Bhatt and Tika Man Vaidya
    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:10
  22. Current models of the mechanism by which intravesical BCG induces an anti-tumor effect in urothelial carcinoma propose a secondary cellular immune response as principally responsible. Our group has demonstrate...

    Authors: Fanghong Chen, Guangjian Zhang, Yoshiki Iwamoto and William A See
    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:8
  23. Androgen withdrawal in normal prostate or androgen-dependent prostate cancer is associated with the downregulation of several glycolytic enzymes and with reduced glucose uptake. Although glycogen metabolism is...

    Authors: Joachim B Schnier, Kayoko Nishi, Paul H Gumerlock, Frederic A Gorin and E Morton Bradbury
    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:6
  24. As the voiding habits of Iranian children differs from other children because of some cultural and religious considerations, we aimed to establish normal reference values of urinary flow rates in Iranian child...

    Authors: Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh, Cyrus Ahmadi Yazdi, Omid Rouhi, Parvin Tajik and Parvin Mohseni
    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:3
  25. Prostate cancer follow up forms a substantial part of the urology outpatient workload. Nurse led prostate cancer follow up clinics are becoming more common. Routine follow-up may involve performing DRE, which ...

    Authors: Narasimhan Ragavan, Vijay K Sangar, Sujoy Gupta, Jennifer Herdman, Shyam S Matanhelia, Michael E Watson and Rosemary A Blades
    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:1
  26. Micro computed tomography (micro CT) has been shown to provide exceptionally high quality imaging of the fine structural detail within urinary calculi. We tested the idea that micro CT might also be used to id...

    Authors: Chad A Zarse, James A McAteer, Andre J Sommer, Samuel C Kim, Erin K Hatt, James E Lingeman, Andrew P Evan and James C Williams Jr
    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:15
  27. The biological potential of prostate cancer is extremely variable. Particular interest is focused on markers not expressed in normal prostatic tissues. pS2 protein expression has been demonstrated in a range o...

    Authors: M Hammad Ather, Farhat Abbas, Nuzhat Faruqui, M Israr and Shahid Pervez
    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:14
  28. Between 2% and 5% of malignant germ-cell tumors in men arise at extragonadal sites. Of extragonadal germ cell tumors, testicular carcinoma in situ (CIS) are present in 31–42% of cases, and CIS are reported to ...

    Authors: Isao Kuroda, Munehisa Ueno, Tomoko Mitsuhashi, Ken Nakagawa, Hitoshi Yanaihara, Takuji Tsukamoto and Nobuhiro Deguchi
    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:13
  29. Vasectomy techniques have been the subject of relatively few rigorous studies. The objective of this analysis was to compare the effectiveness of two techniques for vas occlusion: intraluminal cautery versus l...

    Authors: David Sokal, Belinda Irsula, Mario Chen-Mok, Michel Labrecque and Mark A Barone
    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:12
  30. Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a rare but very aggressive variant of kidney carcinoma that arises from the epithelium of Bellini's ducts, in the distal portion of the nephron. In order to gain an insight i...

    Authors: Andrea Vecchione, Tommaso Prayer Galetti, Marina Gardiman, Hideshi Ishii, Enrico Giarnieri, Francesco Pagano, Leonard G Gomella, Carlo M Croce and Raffaele Baffa
    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:11
  31. Little evidence supports the use of any one vas occlusion method. Data from a number of studies now suggest that there are differences in effectiveness among different occlusion methods. The main objectives of...

    Authors: Mark A Barone, Belinda Irsula, Mario Chen-Mok and David C Sokal
    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:10
  32. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common cancer in adult kidney. The accuracy of current diagnosis and prognosis of the disease and the effectiveness of the treatment for the disease are limited by the po...

    Authors: Louis S Liou, Ting Shi, Zhong-Hui Duan, Provash Sadhukhan, Sandy D Der, Andrew A Novick, John Hissong, Marek Skacel, Alexandru Almasan and Joseph A DiDonato
    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:9
  33. Buried penis, most commonly seen in children, is particularly debilitating in adults, resulting in inability to void while standing and it also affects vaginal penetration. We report a case of buried penis due...

    Authors: Hiroshi Masuda, Haruhito Azuma, Naoki Segawa, Yusaku Iwamoto, Teruo Inamoto, Noboru Takasaki and Yoji Katsuoka
    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:6

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