- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
microRNA-99a acts as a tumor suppressor and is down-regulated in bladder cancer
© Feng et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
- Received: 3 January 2014
- Accepted: 18 June 2014
- Published: 23 June 2014
Increasing evidences have documented that microRNAs (miRNAs) act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in a variety types of cancer. The discovery of tumor associated miRNAs in serum of patients gives rise to extensive investigation of circulating miRNAs in many human cancers which support the use of plasma/serum miRNAs as noninvasive means of cancer detection. However, the aberrant expression of miRNAs and the circulating miRNAs in bladder cancer are less reported.
We used Taqman probe stem-loop real-time PCR to accurately measure the levels of miR-99a in bladder cancer cell lines, 100 pairs of bladder cancer tissues, the adjacent non-neoplastic tissues and plasma collected from bladder cancer patients or control patients. miR-99a mimics were re-introduced into bladder cancer cells to investigate its role on regulating cell proliferation which was measured by CCK-8 assay and cell cycle analysis.
miR-99a was significantly down-regulated in bladder cancer tissues, and even the lower expression of miR-99a was correlative with the more aggressive phenotypes of bladder cancer. Meanwhile, enforced expression of miR-99a can inhibit the cell proliferation of bladder cancer cells. Furthermore, investigation of the expression of miR-99a in plasma of bladder cancer patients showed that miR-99a was also decreased in plasma of bladder cancer patients. The results strongly supported miR-99a as the potential diagnostic marker of bladder cancer.
Our data indicated that miR-99a might act as a tumor suppressor in bladder cancer and was significantly down-regulated in development of bladder cancer.
- Bladder cancer
- Circulation miRNA
Bladder cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies in the world. The most common type of bladder cancer is urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Chromosomal anomalies, genetic polymorphisms, genetic and epigenetic alterations have been reported to be included in the tumorigenesis and progression of bladder cancer . Many molecules involved in these alterations may serve as diagnostic markers of tumor growth and disease progression. Currently, many protein-coding genes and specific genomic regions are the most popular used molecular markers of bladder cancer, such as members of the RAS family, differentially methylated DNA locus [2–4].
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in multiple biological processes through regulating mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. Recent studies have documented that miRNAs acted as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in a variety types of cancer, such as lung, breast, hepatic, and pancreatic cancer [5–10]. Several innate properties of miRNAs make them attractive as potential biomarkers. MiRNAs can be detected easily in small amount samples using specific and sensitive quantitative real-time PCR; miRNAs are stable against degradation and can be detectable in bodily fluids including serum, plasma, saliva, urine and tears [11, 12]. Furthermore, expression profiles of miRNAs would be changed in the plasma and/or serum of cancer patients and miRNAs have been shown to be released from tumor cells to the circulation . So circulating miRNAs will be a novel class of non-invasive biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. However, the expression profile of miRNAs in bladder cancer and miRNAs which may serve as diagnostic markers of bladder cancer are less reported compared with the abroad reports in other cancer types.
miR-99a was proved to be down-regulated in bladder cancer patients by deep sequencing in nine bladder urothelial carcinoma patients , low-grade bladder cancer patients  and was also reported to act as a tumor suppressor in several other cancer types. For example, miR-99a could promote apoptosis by targeting mTOR in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma . In addition, miR-99a induces G1-phase cell cycle arrest and suppresses tumorigenicity in renal cell carcinoma . Down-regulation of miR-99a in oral squamous cell carcinomas also contributes to the growth and survival of oral cancer cells . However, the expression pattern of miR-99a in large numbers of bladder cancer patients and its roles in bladder cancer are unknown.
In this study, we used Taqman probe stem-loop real-time PCR to accurately measure the levels of miR-99a in 100 pairs of bladder cancer tissues and the adjacent non-neoplastic tissues to exclude the differences of miR-99a expression in different individuals. We found that miR-99a was significantly down-regulated in bladder cancer tissues and enforced expression of miR-99a repressed the proliferation of bladder cancer cells. Furthermore, investigation of the expression of miR-99a in the plasma of bladder cancer patients showed that miR-99a was also decreased in plasma of bladder cancer patients which strongly supported miR-99a as the potential diagnostic marker of bladder cancer.
Cell culture and transfections
The human bladder cancer cell lines (J82, HT1376, RT4, T24 and TCCSUP) and immortalized human bladder epithelium (HCV29 and HU609) cells were propagated in DMEM (Invitrogen) supplemented with 10% FCS at 37°C in 5% CO2 cell culture incubator. miR-99a mimics and scramble control mimics were obtained from Dharmacon (Austin, TX, USA) and transfected with DharmFECT1 (Dharmacon, Austin, TX, USA) in HT1376 and J82 cells at a final concentration of 50 nM.
Patients and specimens
The human clinical samples were collected from surgical specimens from 100 patients with bladder cancer at Suining Central Hospital. The corresponding adjacent non-neoplastic tissues from the macroscopic tumor margin were isolated at the same time and used as controls. All samples were immediately snapped frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C until RNA extraction.
Whole blood samples were prospectively collected from bladder cancer patients and control patients without urologic malignancies. Whole blood (5–8 ml) was collected in an ethylene diamine tetracetic acid (EDTA) tube. The sample was centrifuged twice at 4°C. Plasma (supernatant after second centrifugation) was then stored at -80°C. The Clinical Research Ethics Committee of Suining Central Hospital approved the research protocols and written informed consent was obtained from the participants.
RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and real-time PCR assays
Sequence of primers used in qRT-PCR
Sequence(5′ → 3′)
Cell proliferation assay
To measure the effect of miRNA mimics on cell proliferation, cells were incubated in 10% CCK-8 (DOJINDO) diluted in culture media at 37°C until visual color conversion appeared. Proliferation rates were determined at 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 h post-transfection, and quantification was done on a microtiter plate reader (Spectra Rainbow, Tecan) according to the manufacturer’s protocol.
Cell cycle analysis
HT1376 and J82 cells were harvested and washed once at 4°C in PBS containing 0.5% BSA then added ice cold 70% ethanol. The fixed cells were immediately stored at -20°C for at least 24 hours. Cells were washed twice in ice cold PBS to remove ethanol and then resuspended in PBS with 25 μg/ml RNase A and 50 μg/ml Propidium Iodide at 37°C for 1 hour. Flow cytometry was performed using a Beckman Coulter and analyzed with ModFit.
The statistical analyses for miR-99a expression in clinical samples, correlation of miR-99a expression with patients’ clinicopathological variables were conducted using the Bonferroni multiple-comparison test. The other statistical analyses were evaluated by Independent samples T test (two-tailed). P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
miR-99a is down-regulated in bladder cancer cells
miR-99a is down-regulated in bladder cancer tissues compared with the corresponding adjacent non- neoplastic tissues
To further analyze the expression of miR-99a in patients with bladder cancer, we measured the levels of miR-99a in 100 pairs of bladder cancer tissues (C) and the adjacent non-neoplastic tissues (N). Figure 1B showed the representative HE staining of the bladder cancer (C) tissue and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues (N) of 2 patients with bladder cancer. The results of PCR showed that 53/100 (53%) of cases had reduced levels of miR-99a in bladder cancer tissues compared with the corresponding non-neoplastic tissues when the cutoff was set up as 1.5 (Figure 1C). There were 20/100 (20%) of cases which had increased levels of miR-99a in bladder cancer tissues compared with the adjacent non-neoplastic tissues, 27/100 (27%) of cases in whom the expression of miR-99a was unchanged in bladder cancer tissues when the cutoff was set up as 1.5. The results also showed that the average expression of miR-99a in bladder cancer samples was significantly lower than that in the adjacent non-neoplastic tissues (p < 0.001) (Figure 1D). Collectively, the data indicated that miR-99a was significantly attenuated in tumor tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues and might act as a tumor suppressor in bladder cancer.
Low-level expression of miR-99a is associated with aggressive phenotypes of bladder cancer
Clinicopathological features of bladder cancer patients
(n = 100)
(n = 53)
TCC with aberrant differentiation
Enforced expression of miR-99a suppresses bladder cancer cell growth
miR-99a is also down-regulated in the plasma of patients with bladder cancer
The aberrant expression of miRNAs in bladder cancer has been studied in recent years. Some miRNAs have been reported to be up-regulated in bladder cancer tissues. For example, miR-129 was the most commonly up-regulated and its up-regulation was associated with poor outcome ; the expression of miR-96 and miR-183 in urine was significantly correlated with tumor stage and grade, and their expressions were significantly decreased after radical surgery ; miR-133b and miR-518c were also strongly up-regulated in bladder cancer tissues . Meanwhile, some miRNAs were reported to be down-regulated in cancer tissues and might function as tumor suppressors. miR-200 family members were lower in urine sediment of bladder cancer patients and increased significantly following surgery which suggested this microRNA family could be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers of bladder cancer . miR-92 and miR-33 were reported to be down-regulated in the plasma of patients with bladder cancer and the expression of these two miRNAs was inversely correlated with the clinical stage of the cancer . Because miRNAs are small, easy to deliver, stable against degradation and easy to be detected, these aberrant expression miRNAs in bladder cancer are attractive as potential biomarkers and new targets for bladder cancer therapy. However, the potential diagnostic and therapeutic roles of these miRNAs in great numbers of clinical samples are just at the beginning and need to be explored further.
Among the miRNAs which were aberrantly expressed in bladder cancer, miR-99a was reported to be down-regulated in bladder cancer patients by deep sequencing in nine bladder urothelial carcinoma patients . Catto et al. also reported the expression of miR-99a was down-regulated in low-grade bladder cancer patients and also identified a target of miR-99a in bladder cancer progression . Different to these reports, we investigated miR-99a expression in tumor tissues and the adjacent non-neoplastic tissues which were derived from a common patient instead of different individuals to exclude the differences of miR-99a expression in different individuals. In addition, we detected miR-99a expression in more clinical samples and also in the plasma of bladder cancer patients. Our investigation of miR-99a levels in 100 pairs of bladder cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues showed that miR-99a was authentically decreased in bladder cancer tissues. Moreover, the lower level of miR-99a was correlative with more aggressive phenotype of bladder cancer. Reintroduction of miR-99a into the bladder cancer cells which had lower expression of miR-99a could inhibit the unlimited cell proliferation. Collectively, the data indicated that miR-99a functioned as a tumor suppressor in bladder cancer. The roles of miR-99a in regulating bladder cancer cell migration, invasion and apoptosis and the detailed mechanism will be our further directions.
Earlier studies discovered that extracellular miRNAs circulated in the bloodstream and the circulating miRNAs were remarkably stable. Detection of elevated levels of tumor associated miRNAs in serum of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma  leads to wide investigation of circulating miRNAs in many human cancers, including breast cancer , lung cancer , prostate cancer , and renal cell carcinoma  and so on. The expression profile of miRNAs in serum/plasma of the patients with bladder cancer was also investigated and some important circulating miRNAs in bladder cancer had been identified [28, 29]. These studies support the use of serum/plasma miRNAs as noninvasive means of bladder cancer detection. However, there are rare reports about miRNAs down-regulated in the plasma of patients with bladder cancer relative to the extensive studies of miRNAs up-regulated in plasma. We found that the levels of miR-99a in the plasma of bladder cancer was decreased which was consistent with its low level in the cancer tissues although it was unknown how the down-regulation of miR-99a in a relatively small number of tumor cells can affect the plasma miR-99a levels. We think there are two possible explanations for that: 1) The down-regulation of miR-99a in the cancer tissue was significant enough to be able to affect plasma miR-99a levels, meanwhile, the Taqman probe stem-loop real-time PCR was sensitive enough to detect the faint change of miR-99a levels in plasma. 2) The down-regulation of miR-99a in the plasma not only origin from the tumor cells but also from the immunocytes in the tumor microenvironment which needs to be improved further. The decreased expression of miR-99a in the plasma and cancer tissues of bladder cancer patients supported that miR-99a can be developed as a new diagnostic marker for bladder cancer detection.
In summary, we determined the low expression of miR-99a in the cancer tissues and plasma of patients with bladder cancer and also indicated the tumor suppressor role of miR-99a in bladder cancer. Our data provided the potential diagnostic and therapeutic roles of miR-99a in bladder cancer.
This work was supported by grants from the Scientific Research Foundation of Sichuan Provincial Health Department (No.140493).
- Knowles MA: Molecular pathogenesis of bladder cancer. Int J Clin Oncol. 2008, 13: 287-297. 10.1007/s10147-008-0812-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sidransky D, Von Eschenbach A, Tsai YC, Jones P, Summerhayes I, Marshall F, Paul M, Green P, Hamilton SR, Frost P: Identification of p53 gene mutations in bladder cancers and urine samples. Science. 1991, 252: 706-709. 10.1126/science.2024123.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jebar AH, Hurst CD, Tomlinson DC, Johnston C, Taylor CF, Knowles MA: FGFR3 and Ras gene mutations are mutually exclusive genetic events in urothelial cell carcinoma. Oncogene. 2005, 24: 5218-5225. 10.1038/sj.onc.1208705.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maruyama R, Toyooka S, Toyooka KO, Harada K, Virmani AK, Zöchbauer-Müller S, Farinas AJ, Vakar-Lopez F, Minna JD, Sagalowsky A, Czerniak B, Gazdar AF: Aberrant promoter methylation profile of bladder cancer and its relationship to clinicopathological features. Cancer Res. 2001, 61: 8659-8663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Iorio MV, Ferracin M, Liu CG, Veronese A, Spizzo R, Sabbioni S, Magri E, Pedriali M, Fabbri M, Campiglio M, Ménard S, Palazzo JP, Rosenberg A, Musiani P, Volinia S, Nenci I, Calin GA, Querzoli P, Negrini M, Croce CM: MicroRNA gene expression deregulation in human breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2005, 65: 7065-7070. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1783.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee EJ, Gusev Y, Jiang J, Nuovo GJ, Lerner MR, Frankel WL, Morgan DL, Postier RG, Brackett DJ, Schmittgen TD: Expression profiling identifies microRNA signature in pancreatic cancer. Int J Cancer. 2007, 120: 1046-1054.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Yanaihara N, Caplen N, Bowman E, Seike M, Kumamoto K, Yi M, Stephens RM, Okamoto A, Yokota J, Tanaka T, Calin GA, Liu CG, Croce CM, Harris CC: Unique microRNA molecular profiles in lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Cancer Cell. 2006, 9: 189-198. 10.1016/j.ccr.2006.01.025.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Murakami Y, Yasuda T, Saigo K, Urashima T, Toyoda H, Okanoue T, Shimotohno K: Comprehensive analysis of microRNA expression patterns in hepatocellular carcinoma and non-tumorous tissues. Oncogene. 2006, 25: 2537-2545. 10.1038/sj.onc.1209283.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yu S, Lu Z, Liu C, Meng Y, Ma Y, Zhao W, Liu J, Yu J, Chen J: miRNA-96 suppresses KRAS and functions as a tumor suppressor gene in pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res. 2010, 70: 6015-6025. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-4531.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liu C, Yu J, Yu S, Lavker RM, Cai L, Liu W, Yang K, He X, Chen S: MicroRNA-21 acts as an oncomir through multiple targets in human hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2010, 53: 98-107. 10.1016/j.jhep.2010.02.021.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kosaka N, Iguchi H, Ochiya T: Circulating microRNA in body fluid: a new potential biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Cancer Sci. 2010, 101: 2087-2092. 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2010.01650.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cortez MA, Bueso-Ramos C, Ferdin J, Lopez-Berestein G, Sood AK, Calin GA: MicroRNAs in body fluids the mix of hormones and biomarkers. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2011, 8: 467-477. 10.1038/nrclinonc.2011.76.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Taylor DD, Gercel-Taylor C: MicroRNA signatures of tumor-derived exosomes as diagnostic biomarkers of ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2008, 110: 13-21. 10.1016/j.ygyno.2008.04.033.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Han Y, Chen J, Zhao X, Liang C, Wang Y, Sun L, Jiang Z, Zhang Z, Yang R, Chen J, Li Z, Tang A, Li X, Ye J, Guan Z, Gui Y, Cai Z: MicroRNA expression signatures of bladder cancer revealed by deep sequencing. PLoS One. 2011, 6: e18286-10.1371/journal.pone.0018286.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Catto JW, Miah S, Owen HC, Bryant H, Myers K, Dudziec E, Larré S, Milo M, Rehman I, Rosario DJ, Di Martino E, Knowles MA, Meuth M, Harris AL, Hamdy FC: Distinct microRNA alterations characterize high- and low-grade bladder cancer. Cancer Res. 2009, 69: 8472-10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-0744.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sun J, Chen Z, Tan X, Zhou F, Tan F, Gao Y, Sun N, Xu X, Shao K, He J: MicroRNA-99a/100 promotes apoptosis by targeting mTOR in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Med Oncol. 2013, 30: 411-View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cui L, Zhou H, Zhao H, Zhou Y, Xu R, Xu X, Zheng L, Xue Z, Xia W, Zhang B, Ding T, Cao Y, Tian Z, Shi Q, He X: MicroRNA-99a induces G1-phase cell cycle arrest and suppresses tumorigenicity in renal cell carcinoma. BMC Cancer. 2012, 12: 546-10.1186/1471-2407-12-546.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Yan B, Fu Q, Lai L, Tao X, Fei Y, Shen J, Chen Z, Wang Q: Downregulation of microRNA 99a in oral squamous cell carcinomas contributes to the growth and survival of oral cancer cells. Mol Med Rep. 2012, 6: 675-681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dyrskjøt L, Ostenfeld MS, Bramsen JB, Silahtaroglu AN, Lamy P, Ramanathan R, Fristrup N, Jensen JL, Andersen CL, Zieger K, Kauppinen S, Ulhøi BP, Kjems J, Borre M, Orntoft TF: Genomic profiling of microRNAs in bladder cancer: miR-129 is associated with poor outcome and promotes cell death in vitro. Cancer Res. 2009, 69: 4851-4860. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-4043.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamada Y, Enokida H, Kojima S, Kawakami K, Chiyomaru T, Tatarano S, Yoshino H, Kawahara K, Nishiyama K, Seki N, Nakagawa M: MiR-96 and miR-183 detection in urine serve as potential tumor markers of urothelial carcinoma: correlation with stage and grade, and comparison with urinary cytology. Cancer Sci. 2011, 102: 522-529. 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2010.01816.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang G, Chan ES, Kwan BC, Li PK, Yip SK, Szeto CC, Ng CF: Expression of microRNAs in the urine of patients with bladder cancer. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2012, 10: 106-113. 10.1016/j.clgc.2012.01.001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sita-Lumsden A, Dart DA, Waxman J, Bevan CL: Circulating microRNAs as potential new biomarkers for prostate cancer. Br J Cancer. 2013, 108: 1925-1930. 10.1038/bjc.2013.192.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Lawrie CH, Gal S, Dunlop HM, Pushkaran B, Liggins AP, Pulford K, Banham AH, Pezzella F, Boultwood J, Wainscoat JS, Hatton CS, Harris AL: Detection of elevated levels of tumour associated microRNAs in serum of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2008, 141: 672-675. 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2008.07077.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhao H, Shen J, Medico L, Wang D, Ambrosone CB, Liu S: A pilot study of circulating miRNAs as potential biomarkers of early stage breast cancer. PLoS One. 2010, 5: e13735-10.1371/journal.pone.0013735.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Hu Z, Chen X, Zhao Y, Tian T, Jin G, Shu Y, Chen Y, Xu L, Zen K, Zhang C, Shen H: Serum microRNA signatures identified in a genome-wide serum microRNA expression profiling predict survival of non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010, 28: 1721-1726. 10.1200/JCO.2009.24.9342.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mahn R, Heukamp LC, Rogenhofer S, von Ruecker A, Muller SC, Ellinger J: Circulating microRNAs (miRNA) in serum of patients with prostate cancer. Urology. 2011, 77: 1265-View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wulfken LM, Moritz R, Ohlmann C, Holdenrieder S, Jung V, Becker F, Herrmann E, Walgenbach-Brünagel G, von Ruecker A, Müller SC, Ellinger J: MicroRNAs in renal cell carcinoma: diagnostic implications of serum miR-1233 levels. PLoS One. 2011, 6: e25787-10.1371/journal.pone.0025787.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Scheffer AR, Holdenrieder S, Kristiansen G, von Ruecker A, Müller SC, Ellinger J: Circulating microRNAs in serum: novel biomarkers for patients with bladder cancer?. World J Urol. 2012, doi:10.1007/s00345-012-1010-2Google Scholar
- Adam L, Wszolek MF, Liu CG, Jing W, Diao L, Zien A, Zhang JD, Jackson D, Dinney CP: Plasma microRNA profiles for bladder cancer detection. Urol Oncol. 2013, 31: 1701-1708. 10.1016/j.urolonc.2012.06.010.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2490/14/50/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.