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  1. Content type: Research article

    There are no randomised and properly blinded trials directly comparing one PDE-5 inhibitor with another in a normal home setting. Valid indirect comparisons with a common comparator must examine equivalent dos...

    Authors: R Andrew Moore, Sheena Derry and Henry J McQuay

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:18

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Stromal mesenchyme cells play an important role in epithelial differentiation and likely in cancer as well. Induction of epithelial differentiation is organ-specific, and the genes responsible could be identif...

    Authors: Young Ah Goo, David R Goodlett, Laura E Pascal, Kelsey D Worthington, Robert L Vessella, Lawrence D True and Alvin Y Liu

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:17

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  3. Content type: Technical advance

    One of the rare complications of ileal neobladder after radical cystectomy is pouch-to-intestine fistula. There isn't a classic method to intraoperative diagnosis of small fistula.

    Authors: Abbas Basiri, Emadoddin Mo'oudi, Hamed Akhavizadegan and Naser ShakhsSalim

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:16

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), causatively linked to cervical cancer, might also play a role in the development of prostate cancer. Furthermore, the polymorphism at codon 72 (encoding...

    Authors: Gustavo J Leiros, Silvia R Galliano, Mario E Sember, Tomas Kahn, Elisabeth Schwarz and Kumiko Eiguchi

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:15

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Bladder distention is commonly used in diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis (IC). Traditionally performed in the operating room under general or spinal anesthesia (GA), it is expensive and associat...

    Authors: Amy E Rose, Kathryn J Azevedo and Christopher K Payne

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:14

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  6. Content type: Research article

    N-acetyltransferase 2 is phase II metabolizing enzyme that participates in the bioconversion of heterocyclic arylamines into electrophilic nitrenium ions, which are important ultimate carcinogens that are dire...

    Authors: Daya SL Srivastava and Rama D Mittal

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:12

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  7. Content type: Research article

    We examined toe-spreading ability in subjects with chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) to test the hypothesis that subjects with CPPS could have deficiencies in lower extremity functions innervated by sacral s...

    Authors: Ugur Yilmaz, Ivan Rothman, Marcia A Ciol, Claire C Yang and Richard E Berger

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:11

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Simple ligation of the vas with suture material and excision of a small vas segment is believed to be the most common vasectomy occlusion technique performed in low-resource settings. Ligation and excision (LE...

    Authors: Michel Labrecque, John Pile, David Sokal, Ramachandra CM Kaza, Mizanur Rahman, SS Bodh, Jeewan Bhattarai, Ganesh D Bhatt and Tika Man Vaidya

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:10

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Current models of the mechanism by which intravesical BCG induces an anti-tumor effect in urothelial carcinoma propose a secondary cellular immune response as principally responsible. Our group has demonstrate...

    Authors: Fanghong Chen, Guangjian Zhang, Yoshiki Iwamoto and William A See

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:8

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Androgen withdrawal in normal prostate or androgen-dependent prostate cancer is associated with the downregulation of several glycolytic enzymes and with reduced glucose uptake. Although glycogen metabolism is...

    Authors: Joachim B Schnier, Kayoko Nishi, Paul H Gumerlock, Frederic A Gorin and E Morton Bradbury

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:6

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  11. Content type: Research article

    As the voiding habits of Iranian children differs from other children because of some cultural and religious considerations, we aimed to establish normal reference values of urinary flow rates in Iranian child...

    Authors: Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh, Cyrus Ahmadi Yazdi, Omid Rouhi, Parvin Tajik and Parvin Mohseni

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:3

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Prostate cancer follow up forms a substantial part of the urology outpatient workload. Nurse led prostate cancer follow up clinics are becoming more common. Routine follow-up may involve performing DRE, which ...

    Authors: Narasimhan Ragavan, Vijay K Sangar, Sujoy Gupta, Jennifer Herdman, Shyam S Matanhelia, Michael E Watson and Rosemary A Blades

    Citation: BMC Urology 2005 5:1

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Micro computed tomography (micro CT) has been shown to provide exceptionally high quality imaging of the fine structural detail within urinary calculi. We tested the idea that micro CT might also be used to id...

    Authors: Chad A Zarse, James A McAteer, Andre J Sommer, Samuel C Kim, Erin K Hatt, James E Lingeman, Andrew P Evan and James C Williams Jr

    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:15

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  14. Content type: Research article

    The biological potential of prostate cancer is extremely variable. Particular interest is focused on markers not expressed in normal prostatic tissues. pS2 protein expression has been demonstrated in a range o...

    Authors: M Hammad Ather, Farhat Abbas, Nuzhat Faruqui, M Israr and Shahid Pervez

    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:14

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  15. Content type: Case report

    Between 2% and 5% of malignant germ-cell tumors in men arise at extragonadal sites. Of extragonadal germ cell tumors, testicular carcinoma in situ (CIS) are present in 31–42% of cases, and CIS are reported to ...

    Authors: Isao Kuroda, Munehisa Ueno, Tomoko Mitsuhashi, Ken Nakagawa, Hitoshi Yanaihara, Takuji Tsukamoto and Nobuhiro Deguchi

    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:13

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Vasectomy techniques have been the subject of relatively few rigorous studies. The objective of this analysis was to compare the effectiveness of two techniques for vas occlusion: intraluminal cautery versus l...

    Authors: David Sokal, Belinda Irsula, Mario Chen-Mok, Michel Labrecque and Mark A Barone

    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:12

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a rare but very aggressive variant of kidney carcinoma that arises from the epithelium of Bellini's ducts, in the distal portion of the nephron. In order to gain an insight i...

    Authors: Andrea Vecchione, Tommaso Prayer Galetti, Marina Gardiman, Hideshi Ishii, Enrico Giarnieri, Francesco Pagano, Leonard G Gomella, Carlo M Croce and Raffaele Baffa

    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:11

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Little evidence supports the use of any one vas occlusion method. Data from a number of studies now suggest that there are differences in effectiveness among different occlusion methods. The main objectives of...

    Authors: Mark A Barone, Belinda Irsula, Mario Chen-Mok and David C Sokal

    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:10

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common cancer in adult kidney. The accuracy of current diagnosis and prognosis of the disease and the effectiveness of the treatment for the disease are limited by the po...

    Authors: Louis S Liou, Ting Shi, Zhong-Hui Duan, Provash Sadhukhan, Sandy D Der, Andrew A Novick, John Hissong, Marek Skacel, Alexandru Almasan and Joseph A DiDonato

    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:9

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  20. Content type: Case report

    Buried penis, most commonly seen in children, is particularly debilitating in adults, resulting in inability to void while standing and it also affects vaginal penetration. We report a case of buried penis due...

    Authors: Hiroshi Masuda, Haruhito Azuma, Naoki Segawa, Yusaku Iwamoto, Teruo Inamoto, Noboru Takasaki and Yoji Katsuoka

    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:6

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Many studies have evaluated the accuracy of dipstick tests as rapid detectors of bacteriuria and urinary tract infections (UTI). The lack of an adequate explanation for the heterogeneity of the dipstick accura...

    Authors: Walter LJM Devillé, Joris C Yzermans, Nico P van Duijn, P Dick Bezemer, Daniëlle AWM van der Windt and Lex M Bouter

    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:4

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic bladder disorder of unknown etiology. Antiproliferative factor (APF), a peptide found in the urine of IC patients, has previously been shown to decrease incorporation of...

    Authors: Hani H Rashid, Jay E Reeder, Mary J O'Connell, Chen-Ou Zhang, Edward M Messing and Susan K Keay

    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:3

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  23. Content type: Case report

    In the past decades, the widespread use of cross-trigonal ureteral reimplants for the treatment of children with vesicoureteral reflux has resulted in a large population of patients with transversely lying ure...

    Authors: Sonal Chaudhary, Miranda Lee, Henry O Andrews and Noor NP Buchholz

    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:2

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  24. Content type: Case report

    Whereas testicular metastases are in themselves a rare entity, testicular secondaries from an appendiceal carcinoma have not yet been described. The case also illustrates the diagnostic dilemma of a tumour pre...

    Authors: Shashank Kulkarni, Andrew Coup, John B Kershaw and Noor PN Buchholz

    Citation: BMC Urology 2004 4:1

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  25. Content type: Case report

    Cases of giant hydronephroses are rare and usually contain no more than 1–2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. We report a remarkable case of giant hydronephrosis mimicking a progressive malignant abdom...

    Authors: Andres Jan Schrader, Georgia Anderer, Rolf von Knobloch, Axel Heidenreich and Rainer Hofmann

    Citation: BMC Urology 2003 3:4

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  26. Content type: Case report

    Increased spasms in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, whose spasticity was previously well controlled with intrathecal baclofen therapy, are due to (in order of frequency) drug tolerance, increased stimulus, ...

    Authors: Subramanian Vaidyanathan, Bakul M Soni, Tun Oo, Peter L Hughes, Gurpreet Singh, John WH Watt and Pradipkumar Sett

    Citation: BMC Urology 2003 3:3

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  27. Content type: Case report

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a well known therapeutic modality for stone diseases of childhood. Antegrade and retrograde endopyelotomies are also well defined options of treatment for secondary ureteropelvi...

    Authors: Murat Ugras, Ali Gunes, Ugur Yilmaz and Can Baydinc

    Citation: BMC Urology 2002 2:11

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  28. Content type: Case report

    We present a case to illustrate controversies in percutaneous drainage of infected, perinephric haematoma in a tetraplegic patient, who had implantation of baclofen pump in anterior abdominal wall on the same ...

    Authors: Subramanian Vaidyanathan, Bakul M Soni, Peter L Hughes, Gurpreet Singh, John WH Watt, Tun Oo and Pradipkumar Sett

    Citation: BMC Urology 2002 2:9

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  29. Content type: Case report

    Typical symptoms and signs of a clinical condition may be absent in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients.

    Authors: Subramanian Vaidyanathan, Paul Mansour, Munehisa Ueno, Kazuto Yamazaki, Meenu Wadhwa, Bakul M Soni, Gurpreet Singh, Peter L Hughes, Ian D Watson and Pradipkumar Sett

    Citation: BMC Urology 2002 2:8

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Normal urothelium is characterised by terminally differentiated superficial cells, which express cytokeratin 20 in the cytoplasm. In contrast, cultured human stratified urothelium, which does not undergo compl...

    Authors: Subramanian Vaidyanathan, Ian W McDicken, Anna J Ikin, Paul Mansour, Bakul M Soni, Gurpreet Singh and Pradipkumar Sett

    Citation: BMC Urology 2002 2:7

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  31. Content type: Hypothesis

    In spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, no correlation was found between the number of bladder infections per year, the period since injury, the neurologic level of the spinal cord lesion and the histopathology ...

    Authors: Subramanian Vaidyanathan, Paul Mansour, Bakul M Soni, Gurpreet Singh and Pradipkumar Sett

    Citation: BMC Urology 2002 2:5

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Sildenafil (Viagra®) is one of the drugs used in the first line therapy of male erectile dysfunction (MED). We have recorded outcomes, adverse events and acceptability of Sildenafil (Viagra) therapy in an unselec...

    Authors: Krishnamurthy Sairam, Elena Kulinskaya, Damian Hanbury, Gregory Boustead and Thomas McNicholas

    Citation: BMC Urology 2002 2:4

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