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  1. Unimpaired HLA class I antigen presentation is a prerequisite for the recognition of tumor cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and thus essential for the success of anticancer immunotherapeutic concepts. Several ...

    Authors: Juliane S Stickel, Natalie Stickel, Jörg Hennenlotter, Karin Klingel, Arnulf Stenzl, Hans-Georg Rammensee and Stefan Stevanović
    Citation: BMC Urology 2011 11:1
  2. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for and incidence as well as prognostic impact of pathologic fracture (PF) and metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) in patients with bone metast...

    Authors: Carsten Nieder, Ellinor Haukland, Adam Pawinski and Astrid Dalhaug
    Citation: BMC Urology 2010 10:23
  3. Carcinoid is an endocrine cell tumor with low-grade atypia, which is generally a low-grade malignant cancer with a good prognosis. Metastatic renal carcinoid is even rarer than primary carcinoids.

    Authors: Yoshiharu Kato, Kogenta Nakamura, Yoshiaki Yamada, Genya Nishikawa, Takahiko Yoshizawa, Kenji Zennnami, Remi Katsuda, Motoi Tobiume, Shigeyuki Aoki, Tomohiro Taki and Nobuaki Honda
    Citation: BMC Urology 2010 10:22
  4. A prospective multicenter clinical study was performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a bovine dermal graft (Xenform® Matrix, Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA) during vaginal reconstructive surgery.

    Authors: Howard B Goldstein, Joseph Maccarone, Martin J Naughton, Oscar A Aguirre and Rakesh C Patel
    Citation: BMC Urology 2010 10:21
  5. To examine the expression of type 1 plasminogen inhibitor (PAI-1) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC), and its possible association with microvessel density (MVD), the expression of thrombospondin-1 (TS...

    Authors: Dragomir P Zubac, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Tomas Seidal and Leif Bostad
    Citation: BMC Urology 2010 10:20
  6. Laparoscopic single-site surgery has recently emerged in the field of urology and this minimally-invasive surgery has resulted in a further reduction in morbidity compared with traditional laparoscopy. We pres...

    Authors: Kazuyuki Yuge, Akira Miyajima, Masanori Hasegawa, Yasumasa Miyazaki, Takahiro Maeda, Toshikazu Takeda, Ayano Takeda, Kazutoshi Miyashita, Isao Kurihara, Hirotaka Shibata, Eiji Kikuchi and Mototsugu Oya
    Citation: BMC Urology 2010 10:19
  7. Men with erectile dysfunction often have concurrent medical conditions. Conversely, men with these conditions may also have underlying erectile dysfunction. The prevalence of unrecognized erectile dysfunction ...

    Authors: Ridwan Shabsigh, Joel Kaufman, Michelle Magee, Dana Creanga, David Russell and Meeta Budhwani
    Citation: BMC Urology 2010 10:18
  8. at present, pathogenesis of bladder cancer (BC) has not been fully elucidated. Aim of this study is to investigate the role of human telomerase RNA (hTR), human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and CDC28 ...

    Authors: Letizia Mezzasoma, Cinzia Antognelli, Chiara Del Buono, Fabrizio Stracci, Emanuele Cottini, Giovanni Cochetti, Vincenzo N Talesa and Ettore Mearini
    Citation: BMC Urology 2010 10:17
  9. The aim of the following study is to evaluate the advancement of incidentally diagnosed prostate cancer in specimen after cystoprostatectomies caused by muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Secondly we assessed the...

    Authors: Piotr Bryniarski, Mieczysław Fryczkowski, Paweł Pawlaczek, Krzysztof Pliszek, Grzegorz Prokopowicz, Zbigniew Kaletka and Andrzej Paradysz
    Citation: BMC Urology 2010 10:16
  10. Flexible dosing of anticholinergics used for overactive bladder (OAB) treatment is a useful strategy in clinical practice for achieving a maximum effective and maximum tolerated level of therapeutic benefit. I...

    Authors: Rolf-Hasso Bödeker, Helmut Madersbacher, Claudia Neumeister and Michael Zellner
    Citation: BMC Urology 2010 10:15
  11. Fesoterodine is an antimuscarinic for the treatment of overactive bladder, a syndrome of urgency, with or without urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), usually with increased daytime frequency and nocturia. Our ...

    Authors: Linda Cardozo, Vik Khullar, Ahmed El-Tahtawy, Zhonghong Guan, Bimal Malhotra and David Staskin
    Citation: BMC Urology 2010 10:14
  12. Most bladder tumors are derived from the urothelium. Benign mesenchymal tumors are rare. Leiomyoma of the bladder is the most common benign neoplasm. We present a case of leiomyoma of the bladder presenting wi...

    Authors: Masashi Matsushima, Hirotaka Asakura, Hirofumi Sakamoto, Minoru Horinaga, Yoko Nakahira and Hitoshi Yanaihara
    Citation: BMC Urology 2010 10:13
  13. There seems to be no consensus concerning taking bladder biopsies during transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). We investigate the clinical significance of bladder biopsy with TUR-BT and the relati...

    Authors: Masashi Matsushima, Eiji Kikuchi, Masanori Hasegawa, Kazuhiro Matsumoto, Akira Miyajima and Mototsugu Oya
    Citation: BMC Urology 2010 10:12
  14. Intraurethral electrical stimulation (IES) of pudendal afferent nerve fibers can evoke both excitatory and inhibitory bladder reflexes in cats. These pudendovesical reflexes are a potential substrate for resto...

    Authors: John P Woock, Paul B Yoo and Warren M Grill
    Citation: BMC Urology 2010 10:11
  15. Osteoporosis could be associated with the hormone therapy for metastatic prostate carcinoma (PCa) and with PCa per se. The objective of this review is to determine the incidence of bone loss and osteoporosis in p...

    Authors: Ary Serpa Neto, Marcos Tobias-Machado, Marcos AP Esteves, Marília D Senra, Marcelo L Wroclawski, Fernando LA Fonseca, Rodolfo B dos Reis, Antônio CL Pompeo and Auro Del Giglio
    Citation: BMC Urology 2010 10:9
  16. Single minimum incision endoscopic surgery (MIES) involves the use of a flexible high-definition laparoscope to facilitate open surgery. We reviewed our method of radical nephrectomy for renal tumors, which is...

    Authors: Takao Kamai, Nobutaka Furuya, Tsunehito Kambara, Hideyuki Abe, Mikihiko Honda, Yasukazu Shioyama, Yasushi Kaji and Ken-Ichiro Yoshida
    Citation: BMC Urology 2010 10:7
  17. Gefitinib remains an excellent treatment option for patients with a variety of cancers, including non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, clinicians must be aware of the potential of gefitinib to cause an...

    Authors: Maki Arakawa, Kogenta Nakamura, Yoshiaki Yamada, Charles J Rosser, Motoi Tobiume, Hiroko Saito, Takaaki Hasegawa and Nobuaki Honda
    Citation: BMC Urology 2010 10:6
  18. The molecular characteristics and the clinical disease course of bladder cancer (BC) in young patients remain largely unresolved. All patients are monitored according to an intensive surveillance protocol and ...

    Authors: Tahlita CM Zuiverloon, Cheno S Abas, Kirstin A van der Keur, Marcel Vermeij, Stephen S Tjin, Angela G van Tilborg, Martijn Busstra and Ellen C Zwarthoff
    Citation: BMC Urology 2010 10:5
  19. GOLPH2 (Golgi phosphoprotein 2) is a novel Golgi membrane protein. Despite its unknown physiologic function, however, it has been proposed as a biomarker for hepatocellular and prostate carcinoma due to its up...

    Authors: Florian R Fritzsche, Glen Kristiansen, Marc-Oliver Riener, Manfred Dietel and Beibei Oelrich
    Citation: BMC Urology 2010 10:4
  20. Improved understanding of prostate cancer radiobiology combined with advances in delivery of radiation to the moving prostate offer the potential to reduce treatment-related morbidity and maintain quality of l...

    Authors: Alan J Katz, Michael Santoro, Richard Ashley, Ferdinand Diblasio and Matthew Witten
    Citation: BMC Urology 2010 10:1
  21. Normal ultrasound values for pole-to-pole kidney length (LPP) are well established for children, but very little is known about normal kidney size and its influencing factors in adults. The objectives of this ...

    Authors: Bernhard Glodny, Verena Unterholzner, Bernadette Taferner, Karin J Hofmann, Peter Rehder, Alexander Strasak and Johannes Petersen
    Citation: BMC Urology 2009 9:19
  22. Treatment options for overactive bladder (OAB) with urinary urge incontinence (UUI) refractory to oral antimuscarinics include: botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA), sacral neuromodulation (SNM), and augmentation cy...

    Authors: Jonathan D Campbell, Katharine S Gries, Jonathan H Watanabe, Arliene Ravelo, Roger R Dmochowski and Sean D Sullivan
    Citation: BMC Urology 2009 9:18
  23. this study represents a case series to evaluate how successful is the rigid percutaneous nephroscopy as a tool for clearance of all stones in various locations in horseshoe kidneys.

    Authors: Mohamed N El Ghoneimy, Ahmed S Kodera, Ashraf M Emran, Tamer Z Orban, Ahmed M Shaban and Mohamed M El Gammal
    Citation: BMC Urology 2009 9:17
  24. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the donor site morbidity in patients who have undergone oral mucosa graft urethroplasty for stricture of the urethra. The impact of smoking and oral consum...

    Authors: Rahul Janak Sinha, Vishwajeet Singh, SN Sankhwar and Divakar Dalela
    Citation: BMC Urology 2009 9:15
  25. We determine the utility of serial urinary cytologies in patients presenting with microscopic hematuria who were evaluated with upper and lower urinary tract studies to rule out a malignancy.

    Authors: Kogenta Nakamura, Ali Kasraeian, Kenneth A Iczkowski, Myron Chang, John Pendleton, Satoshi Anai and Charles J Rosser
    Citation: BMC Urology 2009 9:12
  26. Previous studies have shown an association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and urinary incontinence (UI) in women, especially severe UI. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether diabetes related var...

    Authors: Marit Helen Ebbesen, Yngvild S Hannestad, Kristian Midthjell and Steinar Hunskaar
    Citation: BMC Urology 2009 9:11
  27. Chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with an increased incidence of Non-Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (non-AIDS) defining cancers. To date, only a limited number of cases of ...

    Authors: Elizabeth M Gaughan, Bruce J Dezube, Mark Bower, David M Aboulafia, Gerry Bohac, Timothy P Cooley and Liron Pantanowitz
    Citation: BMC Urology 2009 9:10
  28. Botulinum Toxin Type-A (BoNT/A) intraprostatic injection can induce prostatic involution and improve LUTS and urinary flow in patients with Benign Prostatic Enlargement (BPE). However, the duration of these ef...

    Authors: João Silva, Rui Pinto, Tiago Carvalho, Francisco Botelho, Pedro Silva, Rui Oliveira, Carlos Silva, Francisco Cruz and Paulo Dinis
    Citation: BMC Urology 2009 9:9
  29. Penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy with an incidence of 1 per 100,000. Conservative and radical treatments can be disfiguring and may have an impact on sexual function, quality of life (QOL), social inter...

    Authors: Satish B Maddineni, Maurice M Lau and Vijay K Sangar
    Citation: BMC Urology 2009 9:8
  30. Little evidence is available to determine which patients should undergo repeat biopsy after initial benign extended core biopsy (ECB). Attempts have been made to reduce the frequency of negative repeat biopsie...

    Authors: Mark A Rochester, Nora Pashayan, Fiona Matthews, Andrew Doble and John McLoughlin
    Citation: BMC Urology 2009 9:7
  31. Renal cell carcinoma patients respond poorly to conventional chemotherapy, this unresponsiveness may be attributable to multidrug resistance (MDR). The mechanisms of MDR in renal cancer are not fully understoo...

    Authors: Naomi Walsh, Annemarie Larkin, Susan Kennedy, Lisa Connolly, Jo Ballot, Wei Ooi, Giuseppe Gullo, John Crown, Martin Clynes and Lorraine O'Driscoll
    Citation: BMC Urology 2009 9:6
  32. Bladder small cell carcinoma is an uncommon tumour. Through a retrospective study we will present the evolution of recurrent and metastatic disease and outcome of patients treated at Léon-Bérard Cancer Centre.

    Authors: Nabil Ismaili, Pierre Etienne Heudel, Fadi Elkarak, Wafaa Kaikani, Agathe Bajard, Mohammed Ismaili, Hassan Errihani, Jean Pierre Droz and Aude Flechon
    Citation: BMC Urology 2009 9:4
  33. High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is a precursor lesion to prostate cancer (CaP). UK-based studies examining the occurrence of isolated HGPIN and subsequent risk of CaP are lacking. Our ai...

    Authors: Paras B Singh, Caroline M Nicholson, Narasimhan Ragavan, Rosemary A Blades, Francis L Martin and Shyam S Matanhelia
    Citation: BMC Urology 2009 9:3
  34. The clinical problem of bladder cancer is its high recurrence and progression, and that the most sensitive and specific means of monitoring is cystoscopy, which is invasive and has poor patient compliance. Bio...

    Authors: Robert E Hurst
    Citation: BMC Urology 2009 9:1
  35. The importance of immuno-histological detection of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic adenocarcinoma with respect to disease at presentation and Gleason grade is gaining acceptance. There is limited l...

    Authors: M Hammad Ather, Farhat Abbas, Nuzhat Faruqui, Mohammad Israr and Shahid Pervez
    Citation: BMC Urology 2008 8:21
  36. To investigate a possible prognostic significance of interactions between lymph node invasion (LNI), synchronous distant metastases (SDM), and venous invasion (VI) adjusted for mode of detection, Eastern Coope...

    Authors: Dragomir P Zubac, Leif Bostad, Tomas Seidal, Tore Wentzel-Larsen and Svein A Haukaas
    Citation: BMC Urology 2008 8:19
  37. Worldwide, the use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing as a screen for prostate cancer is contentious. Whilst there is no National UK Screening programme, many men undergo opportunistic screening. This ...

    Authors: Helena P Burden, Chris R Davis, Sophie Tate, Raj Persad, Chris H Holmes and Kate Whittington
    Citation: BMC Urology 2008 8:17
  38. Sex hormones have a pronounced effect on arginine vasopressin (AVP), and therefore on the diurnal water homeostasis. Low and high levels of plasma-estradiol as seen in the follicular phase of the menstrual cyc...

    Authors: Charlotte Graugaard-Jensen, Gitte M Hvistendahl, Jørgen Frøkiær, Peter Bie and Jens Christian Djurhuus
    Citation: BMC Urology 2008 8:16

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