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  1. Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in American men over the age of 45 years and is the third most common cause of cancer related deaths in American men. In 2012 it is estimated that 2...

    Authors: Diego A Palacios, Makito Miyake and Charles J Rosser
    Citation: BMC Urology 2013 13:4
  2. Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a rare cancer. Some cases can be attributed to individuals with hereditary renal cell carcinomas usually consisting of the clear cell subtype. In addition, two syndromes with ...

    Authors: Carl Ludwig Behnes, Christina Schlegel, Moneef Shoukier, Isabella Magiera, Frank Henschke, Alexander Schwarz, Felix Bremmer and Hagen Loertzer
    Citation: BMC Urology 2013 13:3
  3. COX-2 inhibitors have an antitumor potential and have been verified by many researchers. Treatment of cancer cells with external stressors such as irradiation can stimulate the over-expression of COX-2 and pos...

    Authors: Takeshi Inoue, Satoshi Anai, Sayuri Onishi, Makito Miyake, Nobumichi Tanaka, Akihide Hirayama, Kiyohide Fujimoto and Yoshihiko Hirao
    Citation: BMC Urology 2013 13:1
  4. Bladder cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality with a high recurrence rate. Early detection of bladder cancer is essential in order to remove the tumor, to preserve the organ and to avoid met...

    Authors: Alexis Rivas, Verónica Burzio, Eduardo Landerer, Vincenzo Borgna, Sebastian Gatica, Rodolfo Ávila, Constanza López, Claudio Villota, Rodrigo de la Fuente, Javiera Echenique, Luis O Burzio and Jaime Villegas
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:37
  5. Few reports can be found in the literature with respect to the impact of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) on operative parameters on laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) in a large study. The aim of this...

    Authors: Taku Naiki, Noriyasu Kawai, Takehiko Okamura, Daisuke Nagata, Yoshiyuki Kojima, Hidetoshi Akita, Takahiro Yasui, Keiichi Tozawa and Kenjiro Kohri
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:36
  6. Prostaglandins play an important role in ureteral obstruction, but the detailed expression profiles of the prostaglandin receptors (PTGER1, PTGER2, PTGER3, PTGER4, PTGFR) remain unknown in the different parts ...

    Authors: Matthias Oll, Claudia Baumann, Turang E Behbahani, Alexander von Ruecker, Stefan C Müller and Jörg Ellinger
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:35
  7. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case where a Silastic drain is used in ureteral surgery instead of a common urological stent. Patients coming from other institutions, especially in peripheral ar...

    Authors: Girolamo Fiorini, Giorgio Pomara, Francesca Manassero, Andrea Mogorovich, Lorenzo Faggioni and Cesare Selli
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:34
  8. Guideline recommendations on therapy in urinary tract infections are based on antibiotic resistance rates. Due to a lack of surveillance data, little is known about resistance rates in uncomplicated urinary tr...

    Authors: Guido Schmiemann, Ildikó Gágyor, Eva Hummers-Pradier and Jutta Bleidorn
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:33
  9. Zinc in human seminal plasma is divided into three types of ligands which are high (HMW), intermediate (IMW), and low molecular weight ligands (LMW). The present study was aimed to study the effect of Zn suppl...

    Authors: Mahmoud Hussein Hadwan, Lamia A Almashhedy and Abdul Razzaq S Alsalman
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:32
  10. Secondary urethral stone although rare, commonly arises from the kidneys, bladder or are seen in patients with urethral stricture. These stones are either found in the posterior or anterior urethra and do resu...

    Authors: Linus I Okeke, Augustine O Takure, Sikiru A Adebayo, Olukayode Y Oluyemi and Abimbola AA Oyelekan
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:31
  11. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in aging men are often associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). While regulatory evaluations of treatment benefit require an assessment of specific symptoms, a si...

    Authors: Lars Viktrup, Risa P Hayes, Ping Wang and Wei Shen
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:30
  12. To clarify the significant clinicopathological and postdosimetric parameters to predict PSA bounce in patients who underwent low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-brachytherapy) for prostate cancer.

    Authors: Nobumichi Tanaka, Isao Asakawa, Kiyohide Fujimoto, Satoshi Anai, Akihide Hirayama, Masatoshi Hasegawa, Noboru Konishi and Yoshihiko Hirao
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:28
  13. SPAG16 is a critical structural component of motile cilia and flagella. In the eukaryotic unicellular algae Chlamydomonas, loss of gene function causes flagellar paralysis and prevents assembly of the “9 + 2” axo...

    Authors: David R Nagarkatti-Gude, Giulia Collodel, Lori D Hill, Elena Moretti, Michela Geminiani, Zhibing Zhang and Jerome F Strauss III
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:27
  14. The Patient Perception of Intensity of Urgency Scale (PPIUS) is a patient-reported outcome instrument intended to measure the intensity of urgency associated with each urinary or incontinence episode. The obje...

    Authors: Sherilyn M Notte, Thomas S Marshall, Misun Lee, Zalmai Hakimi, Isaac Odeyemi, Wen-Hung Chen and Dennis A Revicki
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:26
  15. Although indwelling urethra catheterization is a medical intervention with well-defined risks, studies show that approximately 14–38% of the indwelling urethra catheters (IUCs) are placed without a specific me...

    Authors: Irálice AV Jansen, Titia EM Hopmans, Jan C Wille, Peterhans J van den Broek, Tjallie II van der Kooi and Birgit HB van Benthem
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:25
  16. To assess the possibility of hepatocarcinoma-intestine-pancreas/pancreatitis-associated protein (HIP/PAP) as a biological marker for detecting Bladder cancer (BCa), we examined the expression of HIP/PAP in bot...

    Authors: Yujiro Nitta, Hiroyuki Konishi, Tetsuya Makino, Tomoaki Tanaka, Hidenori Kawashima, Juan L Iovanna, Tatsuya Nakatani and Hiroshi Kiyama
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:24
  17. The commercial NMP-22 urine assays for bladder cancer (BCa) detect nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 (NUMA1) using monoclonal antibodies. It remains unclear whether these assays are monitoring a tumor antige...

    Authors: Makito Miyake, Steve Goodison, Evan Gomes Giacoia, Wasia Rizwani, Shanti Ross and Charles J Rosser
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:23
  18. Prevention of bladder cancer recurrence is a central challenge in the management of this highly prevalent disease. The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (sodium valproate) has anti-angiogenic propert...

    Authors: Timothy K Byler, Dean Leocadio, Oleg Shapiro, Gennady Bratslavsky, Christopher J Stodgell, Ronald W Wood, Edward M Messing and Jay E Reeder
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:21
  19. Previous randomized studies have demonstrated that fesoterodine significantly improves the Overactive Bladder (OAB) symptoms and their assessment by patients compared with tolterodine extended-release (ER). Th...

    Authors: David Castro-Diaz, Pilar Miranda, Francisco Sanchez-Ballester, Isabel Lizarraga, Daniel Arumí and Javier Rejas
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:19
  20. Extracellular matrix homeostasis is strictly maintained by a coordinated balance between the expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether t...

    Authors: Sabrina Thalita Reis, Katia Ramos M Leite, Luís Felipe Piovesan, José Pontes-Junior, Nayara Izabel Viana, Daniel Kanda Abe, Alexandre Crippa, Caio Martins Moura, Sanarelly Pires Adonias, Miguel Srougi and Marcos Francisco Dall’Oglio
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:18
  21. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic bladder disorder with bladder epithelial thinning or ulceration, pain, urinary frequency and urgency. There is no reliably effective therapy...

    Authors: Susan Keay, Samantha Leitzell, Ashley Ochrzcin, George Clements, Min Zhan and David Johnson
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:17
  22. PSA-directed prostate cancer screening leads to a high rate of false positive identifications and an unnecessary biopsy burden. Epigenetic biomarkers have proven useful, exhibiting frequent and abundant inacti...

    Authors: Leander Van Neste, Joseph Bigley, Adam Toll, Gaëtan Otto, James Clark, Paul Delrée, Wim Van Criekinge and Jonathan I Epstein
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:16
  23. The open approach represents the gold standard for postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (O-PCLND) in patients with residual testicular cancer. We analyzed laparoscopic postchemotherapy retrop...

    Authors: Jonas Busch, Ahmed Magheli, Barbara Erber, Frank Friedersdorff, Ivan Hoffmann, Carsten Kempkensteffen, Steffen Weikert, Kurt Miller, Mark Schrader and Stefan Hinz
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:15
  24. Prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is based mainly in histological aspects together with PSA serum levels that not always reflect the real aggressive potential of the neoplasia. The micro RNA (miRNA) mir-21 ha...

    Authors: Sabrina Thalita Reis, José Pontes-Junior, Alberto Azoubel Antunes, Marcos Francisco Dall’Oglio, Nelson Dip, Carlo Camargo Passerotti, Guilherme Ayres Rossini, Denis Reis Morais, Adriano Joao Nesrallah, Camila Piantino, Miguel Srougi and Katia R Leite
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:14
  25. Despite the fact that numerous medications have been introduced to treat renal colic, none has been proven to relieve the pain rapidly and thoroughly. In this study, we aimed at comparing the effects of intrav...

    Authors: Hassan Soleimanpour, Kamaleddin Hassanzadeh, Hassan Vaezi, Samad EJ Golzari, Robab Mehdizadeh Esfanjani and Maryam Soleimanpour
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:13
  26. Current urine-based assays for bladder cancer (BCa) diagnosis lack accuracy, so the search for improved biomarkers continues. Through genomic and proteomic profiling of urine, we have identified a panel of bio...

    Authors: Virginia Urquidi, Myron Chang, Yunfeng Dai, Jeongsoon Kim, Edward D Wolfson, Steve Goodison and Charles J Rosser
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:12
  27. Partial nephrectomy has been increasingly recommended over radical nephrectomy for the management of small renal masses based on improved renal functional outcomes without sacrifice of oncologic effectiveness....

    Authors: Rachel L Kyllo, Youssef S Tanagho, Jihad H Kaouk, Michael D Stifelman, Craig G Rogers, Shahab P Hillyer, Shyam S Sukumar, Kenneth G Nepple and Sam B Bhayani
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:11
  28. The aim of this report is to address treatment outcomes of patients with early-stage seminoma in a single institution with special reference to patients with history of surgical violation of the scrotum.

    Authors: Jamal Khader, Ahmed Salem, Yazan Abuodeh, Abdelateif Almousa, Naim Farah and Fadwa Abdelrahman
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:10
  29. To evaluate prolapse-related symptoms, quality of life and sexuality of patients with validated questionnaires before and after surgery for genital prolapse and assess relevance of such an evaluation to select...

    Authors: Christian Chauvin, Elisabeth Chéreau, Marcos Ballester and Emile Daraï
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:9
  30. In Belgium, bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer in males (5.2%) and the sixth most frequent cause of death from cancer in males (3.8%). Previous epidemiological studies have consistently reported th...

    Authors: Maria E Goossens, Frank Buntinx, Steven Joniau, Koen Ackaert, Filip Ameye, Ignace Billiet, Johan Braeckman, Alex Breugelmans, Jochen Darras, Kurt Dilen, Lieven Goeman, Eliane Kellen, Bertrand Tombal, Siska Van Bruwaene, Ben Van Cleyenbreuge, Frank Van der Aa…
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:8
  31. Renal cell carcinoma can cause various paraneoplastic syndromes including metabolic and hematologic disturbances. Paraneoplastic hypereosinophilia has been reported in a variety of hematologic and solid tumors...

    Authors: Tilman Todenhöfer, Stefan Wirths, Claus Hann von Weyhern, Stefan Heckl, Marius Horger, Joerg Hennenlotter, Arnulf Stenzl, Lothar Kanz and Christian Schwentner
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:7
  32. Growing evidence indicates that oxidative stress can be a primary cause of male infertility. Non-enzymatic antioxidants play an important protective role against oxidative damages and lipid peroxidation. Human...

    Authors: Fatma Atig, Monia Raffa, Ben-Ali Habib, Abdelhamid Kerkeni, Ali Saad and Mounir Ajina
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:6
  33. Global histone modifications have been implicated in the progression of various tumour entities. Our study was designed to assess global methylation levels of histone 4 lysine 20 (H4K20me1-3) at different stag...

    Authors: Turang E Behbahani, Philip Kahl, Johannes von der Gathen, Lukas C Heukamp, Claudia Baumann, Ines Gütgemann, Bernhard Walter, Ferdinand Hofstädter, Patrick J Bastian, Alexander von Ruecker, Stefan C Müller, Sebastian Rogenhofer and Jörg Ellinger
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:5
  34. Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is a common complication of ureteral obstruction caused by urolithiasis, and it can be lethal if it progresses to septic shock. We investigated the clinical characteristics of patien...

    Authors: Yoshiyuki Yamamoto, Kazutoshi Fujita, Shigeaki Nakazawa, Takuji Hayashi, Go Tanigawa, Ryoichi Imamura, Masahiro Hosomi, Daiki Wada, Satoshi Fujimi and Seiji Yamaguchi
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:4
  35. The significance of combination of docetaxel (DTX) with estramustine phosphate (EMP) in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to retrospectively evaluate...

    Authors: Kazuhiko Nakano, Shigeyuki Ohta, Kenji Komatsu, Taro Kubo, Akinori Nukui, Kazumi Suzuki, Shinsuke Kurokawa, Minoru Kobayashi and Tatsuo Morita
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:3
  36. Frontometaphyseal dysplasia, or Gorlin-Cohen syndrome, is an X-linked disorder primarily characterized by skeletal dysplasia, such as hyperostosis of the skull and abnormalities of tubular bone modeling. Some ...

    Authors: Ioannis Vakalopoulos, Spyridon Kampantais, Panagiotis Dimopoulos, Christos Papastavros and Vasileios Katsikas
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:2
  37. Onabotulinumtoxin A (OnabotA) injection has been investigated as a novel treatment for benign prostatic enlargement caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia. An OnabotA - induced volume reduction caused by sympa...

    Authors: Tiago Gorgal, Ana Charrua, João F Silva, António Avelino, Paulo Dinis and Francisco Cruz
    Citation: BMC Urology 2012 12:1
  38. The aim was to retrospectively assess the results of treatment of upper urinary tract stones with the Sonolith vision manufactured by EDAP, and purchased in 2004.

    Authors: Kogenta Nakamura, Motoi Tobiume, Masahiro Narushima, Takahiko Yoshizawa, Genya Nishikawa, Yoshiharu Kato, Remi Katsuda, Kenji Zennami, Shigeyuki Aoki, Yoshiaki Yamada, Nobuaki Honda and Makoto Sumitomo
    Citation: BMC Urology 2011 11:26
  39. Caveolae play a significant role in disease phenotypes such as cancer, diabetes, bladder dysfunction, and muscular dystrophy. The aim of this study was to elucidate the caveolin-1 ( CAV1) protein expression in re...

    Authors: Sandra Steffens, Andres J Schrader, Hanna Blasig, Gesa Vetter, Hendrik Eggers, Wolfgang Tränkenschuh, Markus A Kuczyk and Jürgen Serth
    Citation: BMC Urology 2011 11:25
  40. Obstetric fistula although virtually eliminated in high income countries, still remains a prevalent and debilitating condition in many parts of the developing world. It occurs in areas where access to care at ...

    Authors: Musa Kayondo, Ssalongo Wasswa, Jerome Kabakyenga, Nozmo Mukiibi, Jude Senkungu, Amy Stenson and Peter Mukasa
    Citation: BMC Urology 2011 11:23
  41. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via NADPH oxidase (NOX) contributes to various types of cancer progression. In the present research, we examined the pathobiological role of NADPH oxidase (NOX)4-mediat...

    Authors: Keiji Shimada, Tomomi Fujii, Satoshi Anai, Kiyohide Fujimoto and Noboru Konishi
    Citation: BMC Urology 2011 11:22
  42. Gleason scoring has experienced several modifications during the past decade. So far, only one study has compared the prognostic abilities of worst (WGS) and overall (OGS) modified Gleason scores after the ISU...

    Authors: Teemu T Tolonen, Paula M Kujala, Teuvo LJ Tammela, Vilppu J Tuominen, Jorma J Isola and Tapio Visakorpi
    Citation: BMC Urology 2011 11:21
  43. Patients with spinal cord injury and a chronic indwelling urinary catheter are known to have an increased risk of bladder malignancy. However, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the epidermis around a suprapubic...

    Authors: Hiroki Ito, Masayuki Arao, Hanako Ishigaki, Noboru Ohshima, Ayako Horita, Ikuo Saito and Kotaro Hirai
    Citation: BMC Urology 2011 11:20
  44. The PTEN/Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-kinase) growth factor signaling pathway plays a critical role in epithelial tumor development in a multitude of tissue types. Deletion of the Pten tumor suppressor gen...

    Authors: Nicole L Yohn, Caitlyn N Bingaman, Ashley L DuMont and Lina I Yoo
    Citation: BMC Urology 2011 11:19
  45. The purpose of the present study was to determine how acute adult and/or prior early-in life (EIL; P14-P16) exposure to bladder inflammation affects bladder content of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) an...

    Authors: Amber D Shaffer, Chelsea L Ball, Meredith T Robbins, Timothy J Ness and Alan Randich
    Citation: BMC Urology 2011 11:18

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