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  1. Mitomycin (MMC) has been frequently used as the compound for intravesical treatment. The relatively new pyrimidine analog gemcitabine (GEM) has exhibited anticancer effect on various solid cancers, such as the...

    Authors: Rongxin Li, Ye Li, Jun Song, Ke Gao, Kangning Chen, Xiaogang Yang, Yongqiang Ding, Xinlong Ma, Yang Wang, Weipeng Li, Yanan Wang, Zhiping Wang and Zhilong Dong

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:97

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Nocturia is one of the most bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms and often impairs sleep quality in the elderly. Although previous studies on nocturia have indicated that the successful treatment of nocturi...

    Authors: Kazumasa Torimoto, Makito Miyake, Yasushi Nakai, Katsuya Aoki, Nobumichi Tanaka and Kiyohide Fujimoto

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:96

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. Horseshoe kidney (HSK) is a common renal fusion anomaly, occurring in about 1 in 400–600 individuals. In addition, the incidence of duplicated collecting system is about 0.8%.

    Authors: Jindong Zhang, Liang Gao, Changlong Li, Xiaokang Yang, Yusheng Lei and Chuan Liu

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:95

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Physical therapy, including percussion, inversion, vibration and combinations, was clinically performed to improve the stone free rate (SFR) following lithotripsy procedures. However, physical therapy is not w...

    Authors: Linjie Peng, Junjun Wen, Wen Zhong and Guohua Zeng

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:93

    Content type: Research article

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  5. In patients with indwelling bladder catheters for > 2 weeks, bacterial colonization is inevitable, leading to urinary tract infections or encrustations with subsequent catheter blockage. Currently, bladder irr...

    Authors: Jürgen Pannek, Karel Everaert, Sandra Möhr, Will Vance, Frank Van der Aa and Jürg Kesselring

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:92

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy is the treatment of choice for patients with T1 or high-grade superficial bladder cancer or those with carcinoma in situ after transurethral resection. A per...

    Authors: Che-Wei Hsu, Yi-Chun Chiu, Hsiao-Yun Hu, Yu-Hua Fan, Shih-Chi Hong and Wei-Ming Cheng

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:91

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Numerous studies show that the pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is associated with the prognosis of patients with RCC. However, their findings are inconsistent, urging us to explore the progno...

    Authors: Yuan Shao, Bo Wu, Wei Jia, Zikuan Zhang, Qian Chen and Dongwen Wang

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:90

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are usually related to the presence of Escherichia coli, a microorganism that adopts an intracellular life-style during the pathogenesis of cystitis. Evidence of the underlying mec...

    Authors: Carlos Martínez-Figueroa, Karen Cortés-Sarabia, Luz del Carmen Alarcón-Romero, Hilda Guadalupe Catalán-Nájera, Micaela Martínez-Alarcón and Amalia Vences-Velázquez

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:89

    Content type: Case report

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  9. The aims of this study were to determine the predictive value of decision support analysis for the shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) success rate and to analyze the data obtained from patients who underwent SWL to ...

    Authors: Seung Woo Yang, Yun Kyong Hyon, Hyun Seok Na, Long Jin, Jae Geun Lee, Jong Mok Park, Ji Yong Lee, Ju Hyun Shin, Jae Sung Lim, Yong Gil Na, Kiwan Jeon, Taeyoung Ha, Jinbum Kim and Ki Hak Song

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:88

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The point at which men seek medical care for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) varies between individuals. Presentation to hospital with complications beyond LUTS appears prevalent in our setting. The aim of...

    Authors: Ikenna I. Nnabugwu, Ijeoma L. Okoronkwo and Chinwe A. Nnabugwu

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:87

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The present clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a standardized saw palmetto oil containing 3% β-sitosterol in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and androg...

    Authors: H. V. Sudeep, Jestin V. Thomas and K. Shyamprasad

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:86

    Content type: Research article

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  12. To evaluate demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics of small renal masses (SRM) (≤ 4 cm) in a Latin-American population provided by LARCG (Latin-American Renal Cancer Group) and analyze predicto...

    Authors: Thiago Camelo Mourão, Diego Abreu, Gustavo F. Carvalhal, Guillermo Gueglio, Walter H. da Costa, Vinicius Fernando Calsavara, Luis Meza-Montoya, Rubén G. Bengió, Carlos Scorticati, Ricardo Castillejos-Molina, Francisco Rodríguez-Covarrubias, Ana María Autran-Gómez, José Gadu Campos-Salcedo, Alejandro Nolazco, Carlos Ameri, Hamilton Zampolli…

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:85

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Several phase 3 studies reported positive results for combinations of Immune-Oncology (IO) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) targeted therapies in patients with metastatic clear cell Renal Cell Car...

    Authors: Yasser Ged, Ruby Gupta, Cihan Duzgol, Andrea Knezevic, Natalie Shapnik, Ritesh Kotecha, Martin H. Voss, Darren R. Feldman, Oguz Akin, Sujata Patil, Robert J. Motzer, Brian I. Rini and Chung-Han Lee

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:84

    Content type: Research article

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  14. An inguinal hernia is the protrusion of intraabdominal organs through an opening in the abdominal wall. Structures such as small and large intestines are commonly contained within inguinal hernias. However, ur...

    Authors: Christopher El Mouhayyar, Haoyang Wang, Laith Hattar, Fang-Yu Liu, Karen Feghali and Vaidyanathapuram Balakrishnan

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:83

    Content type: Case report

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  15. Partial ablation of the prostate using high-intensity focussed ultrasound (HIFU-PA) is a treatment option for localised prostate cancer. When local recurrence occurs, salvage robot-assisted radical prostatecto...

    Authors: James E. Thompson, Ashwin N. Sridhar, Greg Shaw, Prabhakar Rajan, Anna Mohammed, Timothy P. Briggs, Senthil Nathan, John D. Kelly and Prasanna Sooriakumaran

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:81

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Myxoma is a relatively rare mesenchymal tumor seen mainly in the heart and skin. Renal myxomas in particular are exceptionally rare where only 17 cases were previously reported in the English Language literatu...

    Authors: Najla Aldaoud, Amer Hallak, Liqa A. Rousan, Omar Halalsheh, Bashar Darayseh and Mousa A. Al-Abbadi

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:80

    Content type: Case report

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  17. Recurrent hematospermia accompanied by postejaculatory hematuria is a very rare phenomenon, has not been well understood in the clinical setting, and usually leads to misdiagnosis and mistreatment. The aim of ...

    Authors: Zao-Ming Huang, Yan-Feng Li, Qi Wang, Yong Zhang, Yong Luo, Zhi-Lin Nie, Ke Li, Qing-Xing Feng and Xu-Dong Liu

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:78

    Content type: Research article

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  18. In patients seen in the emergency department (ED) with acute stone obstruction many risk factors that indicate need for urgent renal drainage are known. However, in patients discharged from ED without renal dr...

    Authors: Spencer Larkin, Jeremy Johnson, Trisha Venkatesh, Joel Vetter and Ramakrishna Venkatesh

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:77

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Approximately 1% of urolithiasis cases in Germany affect children. Interdisciplinary groups have agreed on national and international guidelines for children to recommend appropriate treatment pathways. The ai...

    Authors: Felix Blasl-Kling, Simone Katrin Dold, Jan-Thorsten Klein, Gamal Anton Wakileh, Ulrich Humke and Anne-Karoline Ebert

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:76

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Grynfeltt–Lesshaft hernia is a kind of lumbar abdominal wall hernia in which clinical presentations may vary from an asymptomatic bulge in the lumbar area to a symptomatic lumbar mass with back pain. It has be...

    Authors: Saadat Mehrabi, Mohammad Javad Yavari Barhaghtalab and Mehdi Babapour

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:74

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Recent approvals of second-generation androgen receptor inhibitors (SGARIs) have changed the treatment landscape for non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC). These SGARIs have similar effi...

    Authors: Sandy Srinivas, Ateesha F. Mohamed, Sreevalsa Appukkuttan, Marc Botteman, Xinyi Ng, Namita Joshi, Erica Horodniceanu, A. Reginald Waldeck and Stacey J Simmons

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:73

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma (PUC) of the urinary bladder is a variant of urothelial carcinoma that carries a poor prognosis. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been demonstrated to contribut...

    Authors: Shunichiro Nomura, Yasutomo Suzuki, Jun Akatsuka, Yuki Endo, Akira Shimizu, Tsutomu Hamasaki, Go Kimura and Yukihiro Kondo

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:72

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). However, PCa recurrence and progression rates during ADT are high. Until now, there has been no evidence regarding...

    Authors: Agus Rizal A. H. Hamid, Harun W. Kusuma Putra, Ningrum Paramita Sari, Putri Diana, Saras Serani Sesari, Eka Novita, Fajar Lamhot Gultom, Meilania Saraswati, Budiana Tanurahardja, Asmarinah, Rainy Umbas and Chaidir A. Mochtar

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:71

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Holmium laser lithotripsy is the most common technique for the management of ureteral stone. Studies founded that holmium laser firing can produce heat which will cause thermal injury towards ureter. The aim o...

    Authors: Hui Liang, Lijian Liang, Yin Yu, Bin Huang, Jia’nan Chen, Chaoguo Wang, Zhangguo Zhu and Xiaozhong Liang

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:69

    Content type: Research article

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  25. To determine if the number of endoscopic treatments of urethral stricture disease (USD) prior to urethroplasty has changed in the context of new AUA guidelines on management of USD. In addition to an increase ...

    Authors: Matthew J. Moynihan, Bryan Voelzke, Jeremy Myers, Benjamin N. Breyer, Bradley Erickson, Sean P. Elliott, Nejd Alsikafi, Jill Buckley, Lee Zhao, Thomas Smith and Alex J. Vanni

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:68

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Conventional Percutaneous Lithotripsy (PCNL) has been an effective, successful and easy approach for especially > 1 cm sized calyceal stones however risks of complications and nephron loss are inevitable. Our ...

    Authors: Giorgio Bozzini, Tahsin Batuhan Aydogan, Alexander Müller, Maria Chiara Sighinolfi, Umberto Besana, Alberto Calori, Berti Lorenzo, Alexander Govorov, Dmitry Y. Pushkar, Giovannalberto Pini, Antonio Luigi Pastore, Javier Romero-Otero, Bernardo Rocco and Carlo Buizza

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:67

    Content type: Research article

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  27. To compare the perioperative outcomes of transperitoneal laparoscopic (TLA), retroperitoneal laparoscopic (RLA), and robot-assisted transperitoneal laparoscopic (RATLA) adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors in our ...

    Authors: Changwei Ji, Qun Lu, Wei Chen, Feifei Zhang, Hao Ji, Shiwei Zhang, Xiaozhi Zhao, Xiaogong Li, Gutian Zhang and Hongqian Guo

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:66

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Encrustation of ureteral double J stents is a common complication that may affect its removal. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new oral composition to prevent double J...

    Authors: Carlos Torrecilla, Jaime Fernández-Concha, José R. Cansino, Juan A. Mainez, José H. Amón, Simbad Costas, Oriol Angerri, Esteban Emiliani, Miguel A. Arrabal Martín, Miguel A. Arrabal Polo, Ana García, Manuel C. Reina, Juan F. Sánchez, Alberto Budía, Daniel Pérez-Fentes, Félix Grases…

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:65

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Bladder cancer (BC) treatment can have a detrimental effect on the sexual organs of patients and yet assessment of sexual health needs has been greatly overlooked for these patients compared to those who have ...

    Authors: Agustina Bessa, Rebecca Martin, Christel Häggström, Deborah Enting, Suzanne Amery, Muhammad Shamim Khan, Fidelma Cahill, Harriet Wylie, Samantha Broadhead, Kathryn Chatterton, Sachin Malde, Rajesh Nair, Ramesh Thurairaja, Pardeep Kumar, Anna Haire, Saran Green…

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:64

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is an uncommon form of chronic pyelonephritis. Most patients of XGP are diffuse in radiology and the clinical features are typical.

    Authors: Xiaobo Ding, Gang Wang, Tiejun Wang, Xiaobo Ma and Yanbo Wang

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:63

    Content type: Case report

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  31. Evaluating the usefulness of treatment requires a direct measurement of the health-related quality of life (QOL). Therefore, this study was carried out aiming to determine the QOL of patients with MS and voidi...

    Authors: Fatemeh Nazari, Vahid Shaygannejad, Mehrdad Mohammadi Sichani, Marjan Mansourian and Valiollah Hajhashemi

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:62

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Kidney cancer is a lethal neoplasm that affects several thousands of people every year. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common histologic type. Recent developments in the therapeutic approach include an...

    Authors: G. Tsironis, M. Liontos, A. Kyriazoglou, K. Koutsoukos, A. Tsiara, M. Kaparelou, R. Zakopoulou, A. Cohen, E. Skafida, S. Fontara, F. Zagouri, A. Bamias and M. A. Dimopoulos

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:60

    Content type: Research article

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  33. It is well known that androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) can inevitably drive prostate cancer (PCa) cells into a castration-resistant state. According to the “Warburg effect”, the metabolism of aggressive tumo...

    Authors: Ximing Li, Zhi Chen, Zuan Li, Guihai Huang, Junhao Lin, Qiang Wei, Jianbo Liang and Wei Li

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:61

    Content type: Research article

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  34. During transurethral resection of bladder tumours (TURB), radio-frequency (RF) currents can lead to adverse neuromuscular stimulation (NMS). Here we present a novel ex vivo method to determine the risk of RF g...

    Authors: Ulrich Biber, Ovidiu Jurjut, Markus D. Enderle and Wilhelm K. Aicher

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:59

    Content type: Technical advance

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  35. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) is a promising treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with MS. However, long term data focusing on PTNS impact on health-related quality of life...

    Authors: Giulia I. Lane, Yang Mao-Draayer, Paholo Barboglio-Romo, J. Quentin Clemens, Priyanka Gupta, Rod Dunn, Yongmei Qin, Anne P. Cameron and John T. Stoffel

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:58

    Content type: Study protocol

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  36. Penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) represents an important public health problem for developing countries. The major prognostic factors in PSCC are pathological subtype, perineural invasion, lymphovascular ...

    Authors: Chen Hu, Yu Bai, Jun Li, Guoyin Zhang, Libo Yang, Chengwei Bi, Bin Zhao, Yong Yang, Ruiqian Li, Hongyi Wu, Qilin Wang and Yang Qin

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:57

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Over the last few years the number of flexible ureterorenoscopies, used for renal stone treatment, has risen steadily. This was associated with an increase in costs for maintenance and repair of the fragile ur...

    Authors: Maximilian Pallauf, Sabina Sevcenco, Christopher Steiner, Martin Drerup, Michael Mitterberger, Daniela Colleselli, Lukas Lusuardi and Thomas Kunit

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:56

    Content type: Research article

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  38. For patients over the age of 70 years, sacral neuromodulation (SNM) is often not considered a potential therapeutic option. We therefore report on our results from performing SNM in elderly patients ≥70 years.

    Authors: Sandra Schönburg, Tobias Bukethal and Paolo Fornara

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:55

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Kidney triplication is a rare urological abnormality. Association of triplex kidney and ureterocele is out of ordinary. Treatment of such patients usually implies heminephrureterectomy of the upper moiety. We ...

    Authors: I. B. Osipov, D. A. Lebedev and M. V. Lifanova

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:54

    Content type: Case report

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  40. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas, which include Burkitt’s lymphoma, affect the prostate in only 0.1% of cases. They most commonly present as painless lymphadenopathy elsewhere in the body and can cause abdominal or thora...

    Authors: Marcus Derigs, Anika Pehl, Jorge Riera-Knorrenschild, Rainer Hofmann and Axel Hegele

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:53

    Content type: Case report

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  41. To evaluate the relationship between omentin-1 and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BPH is the most common urological disease in elderly men worldwide. Lower serum omentin-1 levels were reported to be negat...

    Authors: Haiqing He, Shuiqing Wu, Jun Hao, Long Wang, Kai Ai, Xuan Zhu, Ran Xu, Xiaokun Zhao, Yinhuai Wang and Zhaohui Zhong

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:52

    Content type: Research article

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  42. To assess the current evidence on the effectiveness and safety of Contasure-Needleless (C-NDL) versus transobturator slings (TOT/TVT-O) in the management of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI).

    Authors: Zhenkai Luo, Binbin Jiao, Hang Zhao, Hailong Liu, Shicong Lai and Guan Zhang

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:51

    Content type: Research article

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  43. To determine risk factors for postoperative fever (POF) after retrograding intrarenal surgery (RIRS) and a nomogram for prediction of POF in patients undertaking RIRS has been developed based on the risk facto...

    Authors: Zhong-yu Jian, Yu-cheng Ma, Ran Liu, Hong Li and Kunjie Wang

    Citation: BMC Urology 2020 20:50

    Content type: Research article

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  • BMC Urology works with with Cochrane Urology in providing our authors with expert advice on systematic reviews and meta-analyses

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