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  1. The optimal timing of salvage androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy is controversial. We compared the outcomes of ultra-early versus early salvage ADT.

    Authors: Satoru Taguchi, Hiroshi Fukuhara, Takeshi Azuma, Motofumi Suzuki, Tetsuya Fujimura, Tohru Nakagawa, Akira Ishikawa, Haruki Kume, Yasuhiko Igawa and Yukio Homma
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:81
  2. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) has been developed in an attempt to further reduce the morbidity and scarring associated with laparoscopic surgery. In patients in whom there are indications to perf...

    Authors: Salvatore Micali, Alessio Zordani, Riccardo Galli, Eugenio Martorana, Micaela Piccoli, Gianni Cappelli and Giampaolo Bianchi
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:80
  3. It is well recognized that the presence of positive surgical margins (PSM) after radical prostatectomy (RP) adversely affects cancer specific outcomes and recent evidence from randomized trials supports the us...

    Authors: Stepan Vesely, Ladislav Jarolim, Katerina Duskova, Marek Schmidt, Pavel Dusek and Marko Babjuk
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:79
  4. The purpose of this study was to explore the budget impact of dutasteride plus tamsulosin fixed-dose combination (DUT + TAM FDC) versus tamsulosin monotherapy, in the treatment of patients with benign prostati...

    Authors: Maria Geitona, Pinelopi Karabela, Ioannis A Katsoulis, Hara Kousoulakou, Eleni Lyberopoulou, Eleftherios Bitros, Loukas Xaplanteris and Sotiria Papanicolaou
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:78
  5. Renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are frequent in tuberous sclerosis and are responsible for a significant proportion of the morbidity in adulthood, mainly from bleeding complications, which are correlated to the s...

    Authors: Thierry Krummel, Julien Garnon, Hervé Lang, Afshin Gangi and Thierry Hannedouche
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:77
  6. Inflammation is a critical component of tumorigenesis, and many cancers arise from sites of infection, chronic irritation, and inflammation. Inflammatory cytokines triggered by tumors alter hematologic compone...

    Authors: Sally Temraz, Deborah Mukherji, Zein Al Abideen Farhat, Rami Nasr, Maya Charafeddine, Mohammed Shahait, Mohammad Rachad Wehbe, Rami Abou Ghaida, Ibrahim Abu Gheida and Ali Shamseddine
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:76
  7. Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN) is the actual gold-standard for the treatment of clinically localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (cT1-2 with no indications for nephron-sparing surgery). Limited evidence...

    Authors: Anastasios D Asimakopoulos, Roberto Miano, Filippo Annino, Salvatore Micali, Enrico Spera, Beniamino Iorio, Giuseppe Vespasiani and Richard Gaston
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:75
  8. Representative statistics of surgical care among patients with kidney cancer are scant. With the introduction of the diagnosis related group system in Germany, it is now possible to provide nationwide statisti...

    Authors: Andreas Stang and Christian Büchel
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:74
  9. Cardiac metastases from renal cell carcinoma without vena caval involvement are extremely rare with a limited number of cases reported in the worldwide literature until now. Nevertheless, this rare location of...

    Authors: Anna M Czarnecka, Pawel Sobczuk, Fei Lian and Cezary Szczylik
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:73
  10. The observed low metastatic potential and favorable survival of small incidentally detected renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) have been a part of the rationale for recommending partial nephrectomy as a first treatm...

    Authors: Johann P Ingimarsson, Martin I Sigurdsson, Sverrir Hardarson, Vigdis Petursdottir, Eirikur Jonsson, Gudmundur V Einarsson and Tomas Gudbjartsson
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:72

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Urology 2015 15:5

  11. Inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a novel strategy used to treat malignancies. Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 6 by the HDAC inhibitor panobinostat hinders the refolding of unfolded protei...

    Authors: Akinori Sato, Takako Asano, Makoto Isono, Keiichi Ito and Tomohiko Asano
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:71
  12. To review the possible mechanisms proposed to explain the etiology of 46, XX sex reversal by investigating the clinical characteristics and their relationships with chromosomal karyotype and the SRY(sex-determini...

    Authors: Qiu-Yue Wu, Na Li, Wei-Wei Li, Tian-Fu Li, Cui Zhang, Ying-Xia Cui, Xin-Yi Xia and Jin-Sheng Zhai
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:70
  13. The control of the lower urinary tract is a complex, multilevel process involving both the peripheral and central nervous system. Due to lesions of the neuraxis, most spinal cord injury patients suffer from ne...

    Authors: Lorenz Leitner, Matthias Walter, Patrick Freund, Ulrich Mehnert, Lars Michels, Spyros Kollias and Thomas M Kessler
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:68
  14. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between preoperative estimated prostate weight on ultrasonography and clinical manifestations of transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome.

    Authors: Atsushi Fujiwara, Junko Nakahira, Toshiyuki Sawai, Teruo Inamoto and Toshiaki Minami
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:67
  15. We have observed different clinical responses to botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in patients who had similar urodynamic parameters before the procedure. Furthermore, some bladders evaluated by cystography and cystos...

    Authors: Ronaldo Alvarenga Álvares, Ivana Duval Araújo and Marcelo Dias Sanches
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:66
  16. Sacral neuromodulation has become a well-established and widely accepted treatment for refractory non-neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, but its value in patients with a neurological cause is unclear....

    Authors: Stephanie C Knüpfer, Martina D Liechti, Livio Mordasini, Dominik Abt, Daniel S Engeler, Jens Wöllner, Jürgen Pannek, Bernhard Kiss, Fiona C Burkhard, Marc P Schneider, Elena Miramontes, Alfons G Kessels, Lucas M Bachmann and Thomas M Kessler
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:65
  17. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is considered the most effective treatment to reduce recurrence and progression of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) but can induce local side effects leading to treatme...

    Authors: Luca Topazio, Roberto Miano, Valentina Maurelli, Gabriele Gaziev, Mauro Gacci, Valerio Iacovelli and Enrico Finazzi-Agrò
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:64
  18. Bioactive compounds from plants (i.e., Serenoa repens) are often used in medicine in the treatment of several pathologies, among which benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) associated to lower urinary tract symptoms...

    Authors: Celeste De Monte, Simone Carradori, Arianna Granese, Giovanni Battista Di Pierro, Costantino Leonardo and Cosimo De Nunzio
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:63
  19. Laser lithotripsy is an established endourological modality. Ho:YAG laser have broadened the indications for ureteroscopic stone managements to include larger stone sizes throughout the whole upper urinary tra...

    Authors: Wael Y Khoder, Markus Bader, Ronald Sroka, Christian Stief and Raphaela Waidelich
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:62
  20. Insufficient vas length for performing a tension-free vasovasostomy is a problem occasionally encountered by microsurgeons. Herein we evaluated utilization of a non-vascularized vas deferens autograft in a rat...

    Authors: Teoman Cem Kadioglu, Peter D Temple-Smith and Graeme Southwick
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:61
  21. The efficacy of medical treatment among obese men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) has been less clear, especially regarding the improvement of QoL. We aimed to investigate the difference in efficacy a...

    Authors: Jae Heon Kim, Hoon Choi, Hwa Yeon Sun, Seung Whan Doo, Jong Hyun Yoon, Won Jae Yang, Byung Wook Yoo, Joyce Mary Kim, Soon-Sun Kwon, Eun Seop Song, Hong Jun Lee, Ik Sung Lim and Yun Seob Song
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:60
  22. Past attempts at detecting prostate cancer (PCa) cells in voided urine by traditional cytology have been impeded by undesirably low sensitivities but high specificities. To improve the sensitivities, we evalua...

    Authors: Yasushi Nakai, Satoshi Anai, Masaomi Kuwada, Makito Miyake, Yoshitomo Chihara, Nobumichi Tanaka, Akihide Hirayama, Katsunori Yoshida, Yoshihiko Hirao and Kiyohide Fujimoto
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:59
  23. The “Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain” (MAPP) Research Network was established by the NIDDK to better understand the pathophysiology of urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes (UCP...

    Authors: J Richard Landis, David A Williams, M Scott Lucia, Daniel J Clauw, Bruce D Naliboff, Nancy A Robinson, Adrie van Bokhoven, Siobhan Sutcliffe, Anthony J Schaeffer, Larissa V Rodriguez, Emeran A Mayer, H Henry Lai, John N Krieger, Karl J Kreder, Niloofar Afari, Gerald L Andriole…
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:58
  24. Urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) may be defined to include interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). The hallmark symptom...

    Authors: J Quentin Clemens, Chris Mullins, John W Kusek, Ziya Kirkali, Emeran A Mayer, Larissa V Rodríguez, David J Klumpp, Anthony J Schaeffer, Karl J Kreder, Dedra Buchwald, Gerald L Andriole, M Scott Lucia, J Richard Landis and Daniel J Clauw
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:57
  25. Despite the growing body of literature which highlights the potential for significant and enduring side-effects of prostate cancer treatment, there is limited research exploring the experience of living with t...

    Authors: Narelle Hanly, Shab Mireskandari and Ilona Juraskova
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:56
  26. An immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is important disease in differential diagnosis of tumors in kidney, pancreas, lung and other organs. The imaging findings of IgG4-related kidney diseases are usually...

    Authors: Hideo Fukuhara, Yoshinori Taniguchi, Manabu Matsumoto, Naoto Kuroda, Satoshi Fukata, Keiji Inoue, Shimpei Fujimoto, Yoshio Terada and Taro Shuin
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:54
  27. Bacterial prostatitis (BP) is a common condition accounting responsible for about 5-10% of all prostatitis cases; chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) classified as type II, are less common but is a condition t...

    Authors: Gian Maria Busetto, Riccardo Giovannone, Matteo Ferro, Stefano Tricarico, Francesco Del Giudice, Deliu Victor Matei, Ottavio De Cobelli, Vincenzo Gentile and Ettore De Berardinis
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:53
  28. The simplified International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) is a convenient, reliable and validated diagnostic tool for erectile dysfunction (ED). However, few studies focused on IIEF-5 in ED patients wit...

    Authors: Zhengyan Tang, Dongjie Li, Xiaobo Zhang, Lu Yi, Xiangsheng Zhu, Xiangyang Zeng and Yuxin Tang
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:52
  29. The aim of this study was to describe the results of a 1-year patient follow-up after anterior vaginal wall darn, a novel technique for the repair of anterior vaginal wall prolapse.

    Authors: Osman Köse, Hasan S Sağlam, Şükrü Kumsar, Salih Budak, Hüseyin Aydemir and Öztuğ Adsan
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:51
  30. Prostate cancer is the most common male malignancy and a mayor cause of mortality in the western world. The impact of clinicopathological variables on disease related outcomes have mainly been reported from a ...

    Authors: Sigve Andersen, Elin Richardsen, Yngve Nordby, Nora Ness, Øystein Størkersen, Khalid Al-Shibli, Tom Donnem, Helena Bertilsson, Lill-Tove Busund, Anders Angelsen and Roy M Bremnes
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:49
  31. This very large population-based study investigated outcomes after a diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) in terms of mortality rates, treatments and adverse effects.

    Authors: Philippe Tuppin, Solène Samson, Anne Fagot-Campagna, Bertrand Lukacs, François Alla, Fred Paccaud, Jean-Christophe Thalabard, Eric Vicaut, Michel Vidaud and Bertrand Millat
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:48
  32. The purpose of this study is presenting a method to predict the presence of an open urinary tract and the position of the opening in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy from three dimensional (3D) computed tomogr...

    Authors: Daiki Ueno, Kazuhide Makiyama, Hiroyuki Yamanaka, Takashi Ijiri, Hideo Yokota and Yoshinobu Kubota
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:47
  33. The use of buccal mucosa grafts (BMG) for urethral reconstruction has increased in popularity over the last several decades. Our aim was to describe our institutional experience with and outcomes after BMG ure...

    Authors: Emilie K Johnson, Spencer I Kozinn, Kathryn L Johnson, Sohee Kim, David A Diamond and Alan B Retik
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:46
  34. Gleason pattern 3 less often has molecular abnormalities and often behaves indolent. It is controversial whether low grade small foci of prostate cancer (PCa) on biopsy could avoid immediate treatment or not, ...

    Authors: Masahiro Yashi, Tomoya Mizuno, Hideo Yuki, Akinori Masuda, Tsunehito Kambara, Hironori Betsunoh, Hideyuki Abe, Yoshitatsu Fukabori, Osamu Muraishi, Koyu Suzuki, Yoshimasa Nakazato and Takao Kamai
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:43
  35. Renal artery aneurysm is a rare disorder with a high mortality rate in the event of rupture, the most frequent complication, which can also occur in lesions smaller than those indicated for treatment by curren...

    Authors: Michele Rossi, Gianluca Maria Varano, Gianluigi Orgera, Alberto Rebonato, Florindo Laurino and Cosimo De Nunzio
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:42
  36. The survival benefits of adrenalectomy (ADx) in the setting of metastatic cancer and prognostic factors for recurrence-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS) after adrenalectomy for metastatic carcinoma are stil...

    Authors: Eu Chang Hwang, Insang Hwang, Seung Il Jung, Taek Won Kang, Dong Deuk Kwon, Suk Hee Heo, Jun Eul Hwang, Sung Gu Kang, Seok Ho Kang, Jeong Gu Lee, Je Jong Kim and Jun Cheon
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:41
  37. Seminomatous and non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumors (GCT) of the testis are a rare cancer, with an estimated incidence of 56.3 per million white males and 10 per million black males in the United States.

    Authors: Pietro Rispoli, Paolo Destefanis, Paolo Garneri, Gianfranco Varetto, Beatrice Lillaz, Claudio Castagno, Patrizia Lista, Libero Ciuffreda and Dario Fontana
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:40
  38. Mucin-producing urothelial-type adenocarcinoma of the prostatic urethra is extremely rare. These lesions must be differentiated from other mucinous tumors including mucin-producing prostatic adenocarcinoma and...

    Authors: Elisabeth M Sebesta, Hossein S Mirheydar, J Kellogg Parsons, Jessica Wang-Rodriguez and A Karim Kader
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:39
  39. Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) is a new treatment modality in various causes of bladder dysfunction; like neurogenic detrusor overactivity and overactive bladder. The best technique of administrating BoNT-A in pat...

    Authors: Janneke IM van Uhm, Goedele MA Beckers, Willem J van der Laarse, Eric JH Meuleman, Albert A Geldof and Jakko A Nieuwenhuijzen
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:37
  40. Reduced membranous expression of the cytoskeleton-associated protein ezrin has previously been demonstrated to correlate with tumour progression and poor prognosis in patients with T1G3 urothelial cell carcino...

    Authors: Gustav Andersson, Christoffer Wennersten, Alexander Gaber, Karolina Boman, Björn Nodin, Mathias Uhlén, Ulrika Segersten, Per-Uno Malmström and Karin Jirström
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:36
  41. The prostatic anterior zone (AZ) is not targeted routinely by TRUS guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Pbx). MRI is an accurate diagnostic tool for AZ tumors, but is often unavailable due to cost or system restrictio...

    Authors: Eric Cole, David Margel, Michael Greenspan, Bobby Shayegan, Edward Matsumoto, Marc A Fischer, Michael Patlas, Dean Daya and Jehonathan H Pinthus
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:34
  42. Primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT) is the most effective systemic therapy for patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Nevertheless, once PSA progression develops, the prognosis is serious and mortal...

    Authors: Atsushi Tomioka, Nobumichi Tanaka, Motokiyo Yoshikawa, Makito Miyake, Satoshi Anai, Yoshitomo Chihara, Eijiro Okajima, Akihide Hirayama, Yoshihiko Hirao and Kiyohide Fujimoto
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:33
  43. Schwannomas are tumours arising from Schwann cells, which sheath the peripheral nerves. Here, we report a rare case of left intrascrotal, extratesticular schwannoma. Although rare, scrotal localisation of schw...

    Authors: Giovanni Palleschi, Antonio Carbone, Jessica Cacciotti, Giorgia Manfredonia, Natale Porta, Andrea Fuschi, Cosimo de Nunzio, Vincenzo Petrozza and Antonio Luigi Pastore
    Citation: BMC Urology 2014 14:32

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